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Fascism's Rape of the Mind
(Part 3 of "Rockefeller's 'Fascism with a Democratic Face'"
- an ICLC Strategic Study which comprises the entirety of the November-December 1974
issue of The Campaigner, a 20MB PDF image-file)
Page numbers of source included to facilitate verification
[Transcriber's note: One of the main reasons I decided to transcribe this article is that it contains an overview of what LaRouche and his associates call "The New Psychoanalysis." I decided not to transcribe the far more rigorous Beyond Psychoanalysis (a 9.5 MB PDF file) because of the time and effort required, and the fact that nobody who is interested in it enough to study it would be deterred by having to work with the PDF version.]
... It was approximately 20 years ago that Kurt Lewin and Brigadier General Dr. John Rawlings Rees proposed developing methods of political control based upon driving the majority of the human population toward psychosis. They proposed this to render the population submissive under the Schachtian economic world order which Rockefeller-linked agencies were plotting to install at some point in the decades immediately ahead. Since that time, the various forms of psychological warfare developed by Lewin, Rees, their collaborators, and students have been the central feature of the activities of a world-wide set of interlocking "think tanks" and special "commissions."
The significance of George Orwell's famous novel Nineteen-Eighty-Four is that its writing was inspired by a commitment to a further world order which existed among top, Rockefeller family-dominated Anglo-American political intelligence agencies by the late 1940s. Like numerous well-known top trade-union officials and celebrated social-democratic political and "cultural" figures, Orwell was an intelligence operative for the Anglo-American CIA-SIS services. This employment brought him into privileged association with other operatives directly connected with the London Tavistock Institute. Several of these latter persons known to have served with Orwell were directly involved in developing key fascist sociological and psychological schemes, which had already been adopted off the Tavistock drawing boards by the late 1940s. His novel directly reflects such insider's information.
A similar observation applies to the recent film Clockwork Orange. Every exotic feature of that fllmscript, the brainwashing, the psychotic terrorism, sado-masochistic cults, and so forth, are already being deployed on a large scale by Tavistock-connected Anglo-American agencies. The political concentration camps of Northern Ireland are only one example of the large-scale use of brainwashing to turn former political activists into zombie-operatives for the Anglo-American intelligence services. The Symbionese Liberation Army in the U.S., the Baader-Meinhof gang in the German Federal Republic, the "Japanese Red Army," the "Black September" gang of the British SIS's Libyan division, the Italian "Red Brigades," and so forth and so on are better-known examples.
Worse, in U.S. industries, programs launched by joint action of government, corporations, and trade-union leaders already have the short-term capacity and stated purpose of brainwashing 10 per cent of the U.S. industrial labor force. (It is no exaggeration to term such Rockefeller labor lieutenants as Leonard Woodcock, Irving Bluestone, I.W. Abel, Eugen Loderer, and so forth as fascists. Not only are they directly and deliberately involved in pushing brainwashing programs against union members, but they are consciously pushing traditionally fascist corporativist policies as well as fully supporting the most hideous real-incomes-reduction and super speedup programs of the Rockefellers.)
Only an Imbecile could argue sincerely that the Rockefeller agencies could not go so far as to push a
majority of the population into a state of psychosis by brainwashing. Those agencies are already engaged in that undertaking. Furthermore, lest one doubt their capacity to carry out such intent, consider the progress of another facet of their programs: "food triage."
Out of an area of approximately 800 million population marked for mass genocide (the so-called "Fourth World" of McNamara's World Bank program), in India alone it is estimated that approximately 22 to 30 million deaths have occurred during 1974 as a direct result of the Rockefeller starvation-plague program for reducing the world population (to between 2 and 2.5 billion by 1999). Public figures on the hideous genocide in the sub-Sahara region are withheld so far. Central America, also set aside for mass genocide, is another case. Bangladesh may lose half its population through the Rockefeller program of food-production cutbacks over the 1974-75 period. By the fall of 1975 the Rockefeller agencies' programs will have deliberately exterminated more human beings than the Nazi regime; and that is merely the beginning.
Reducing a majority of the surviving human population to a state approaching psychosis is a relatively mild offense compared to the deliberate extermination of approximately half the human race during a decade and a half or less.
Anglo-American psychological warfare technology is based on an accumulation of experimental knowledge of techniques for inducing psychotic and semi-psychotic states in normally neurotic persons and groups. Early studies focused on the way in which so-called "war neuroses" might be deliberately induced as a method of brainwashing; they drew upon criminal misuse of psychiatric experience generally; and they seized with fascination on the apparent successes of the Chinese Peoples' Republic in developing coercive methods of behavior modification. Through such studies a more or less consistent interpretation was developed covering a broad range of subsumed fields of psychological warfare, ranging from practices like the World War II "Strategic Bombing Survey" through criminal misuse of controlled news media down to individual brainwashing as such.
The work of Rockefeller family protégé Kurt Lewin performs a key role within the general psychological warfare schema. Lewin was a professor from Germany whose academic opportunities under the Nazis were curtailed by the fact that he was both a "left-wing" variety of fascist ideologue and a Jew. His significant contribution to psycho-sociology can be readily summed up without consequent distortion.
Whereas most fascist ideologies had proposed organizational forms like Lewin's as the objective of their "revolution," Lewin was the first to emphasize the converse, that the imposition of fascist-like forms of small-group organization and corporatist "structural reforms" could induce fascist ideology in a subject population. Hence, in his view, once the subject-population had been herded into fascist schema such as "local community control" and corporativist employee employer-government "co-determination"-type "structural reforms," the empty forms of democratic deliberation within such institutions could produce a relatively stable sort of fascist regime with a relative minimum of coercive police institutions needed.
Although a few amoral eccentrics, such as Tavistock's R.D. Laing, and some renegade or credulous psychoanalysts have contributed the rudiments of a systematic approach to the psychology of brainwashing,
most Anglo-American psychological warfare techniques are merely mechanistic refinements of such outright "sledge hammer" brainwashing techniques as those of the Chinese or of French "para" Algerian-war interrogation teams. In general, they represent the accumulated results of a massive hit-or-miss effort to add compactness and efficiency to crude "Mutt and Jeff" variations of outright prison basement torture-room tactics.
These techniques would succeed with most individuals held - as individuals - within a controlled environment. However, the very crudity of the methods is such that they could not succeed as mass-application techniques against a population which possessed even a modest approximation of scientific knowledge concerning the human mind. A large population, reasonably informed concerning the ABCs of psychology, would recognize the efforts to create a controlled environment and would quickly develop effective countermeasures to destroy such an environment - limiting the success of psychological warfare techniques to cases of captured isolated individuals.
For that reason, it is essential that the Labor Committees and others continue and accelerate recent advances in the field of scientific psychology as an important practical feature of the inoculation of the general population against the prefab games of humanity's enemies. It is similarly essential that considerable attention be given to outlining essential points in this draft resolution.
For reference, we now outline a somewhat expanded version of the listing we presented in the opening section of this draft. The specific topics of Anglo-American psychological warfare with which we must be familiar are as follows:
1. Strategic military-political doctrine. The essential points to be made have already been noted.
2. "Area Population Psychological Studies." During World War II, the Anglo-American psychological warfare services developed a number of studies of specific neurotic susceptibilities of various national cultures. The most famous of these was the so-called "Strategic Bombing Survey," thus termed because of one of its original intended applications. It was conceived as a basis for coordinating allied bombing of Germany with propaganda and other psychological warfare campaigns against the morale of various enumerated strata of the Third Reich's population, and was approximately the grandfather of the more recent "Operation Phoenix" CIA-Pentagon genocide operation in South Vietnam. As that work developed its uses for political psychological warfare applications were emphasized, including policies to be used for the allied occupation of Germany. Similar studies were made of the Japanese ideology.
At the end of the war, the practice was extended to Eastern Europe, largely under the cover of UNRRA operations, and studies were developed of Italy, France ... now every sector of the world. The key psychological warfare study of the Soviet leadership was developed by Tavistock and RAND, under the direction of H.V. Dicks, author of the "Strategic Bombing Survey." Anglo-American playing on the "Oblomovist" susceptibilities of Soviet leaders has been rather effective Anglo-American strategic policy during the 1960s and early 1970s. Rockefeller "detente" policy tactics toward the USSR have been exploitation of essentially the
psychological weaknesses of victims of "Oblomovism."
Beginning in the fall of 1972, the Labor Committees undertook "area population psychological studies" for key European sectors, beginning with Germany and Italy, and shortly after that undertook a major study of the Latin-American ideology. These counter-studies are aimed at remedying the psychological vulnerabilities of workers and their allies.
3. The use of control of major news and cultural media as instruments for inducing desired forms of partial insanity among large populations. We have noted, for the sample U.S. case, that Rockefeller-allied agencies control the major national news services (AP, UPI, radio-TV news organizations) and key metropolitan daily newspapers. In general, by so controlling the news slant concerning national and international issues, and related practices, the key agencies and principal other mass-circulation media determine what the population generally knows and considers credible. Deliberate falsification of the news currently practiced on a massive and reckless scale is used to determine largely what the population thinks (wrongly) is occurring in the world.
This obvious manipulation of the news, modeled on Josef Goebbels and Anglo-American World-War II practices, is cemented by the introduction of programmed "subliminal" psychological material, whose predetermined effect is to accentuate infantile impulses among targeted portions of the population.
4. "Local control" and "co-determination." The development and introduction of fascist social forms such as "local community control" all "co-participation" (corporativist forms of organization, narrowing the scale of the groups by separations according to race, sex, language background, regional backgrounds, current status, recreational interests, age groups, and neighborhood. Setting such groups into competitive contiguity under conditions of general austerity is an effective Lewinite technique for inducing self-brainwashing among these groups and progressive psychological deterioration toward polymorphous perverse pseudo-families and outright clinical psychosis. "Local community control" and "co-participation" types of "structural reforms" along these lines are a principal direct means of political control essential to fascism with a democratic face.
5. The application of Lewinite "small group brainwashing" techniques to "leaderless group" reorganization of production. Under conditions of austerity, recycling of employed and unemployed, and large-scale relocation programs, the introduction of token (e.g. "Halsey" group work-incentive) group piece-work and performance-reward competition among competing groups transforms the small production team into a potentially self-brainwashing group. The introduction of "transactional therapy," intra-group sessions practices to these teams is the means for effecting the potential result. Under these conditions, semi-psychosis and psychosis cause the group to "voluntarily" attain degrees of intensification of labor which cannot be forced from sane labor. The members of such self-brainwashing "leaderless group" work teams emulate the "racehorse" syndrome, driving hysterically toward literally suicidal work-paces. Tavistock and University of Pennsylvania fascist labor specialist Eric Trist is the best known spokesman for these practices.
6. The use of brainwashed gangs of zombies, deployed under direct or indirect control of covert operations agencies, as pseudo-leftists and zombie-fascist gangs and countergangs. These groups, whether masquerading as "leftist" organizations or as small terrorist-bomber and zombie-senseless-killer bands, create an atmosphere of terror. They provide an immediate "backfire" method of counterinsurgency against genuine political resistance forces, and otherwise induce the conditions of terror in which the population more readily tolerates or even demands military and police takeover of civilian government.
7. The development of military and police forces as "civic operations" insurgency-counterinsurgency forces. The broad function of such reoriented military and police forces is that proposed by Brigadier Rees. Their essential role is to be the "mother" of civilian governments and to supervise appointed civilian governments, while maintaining a credibly awesome threat of instant and drastic punitive action against any civilian government or political opposition which fails to carry out the directives of the ruling financial circles. Rather than functioning simply as armed errand-boys for the financial circles, these military police agencies are intended to function as a political force, to represent an organic set of economic, political, and social policies, and to directly audit, check, shape the performance of civilian governments in an terms of the political-economic and social doctrines of the
military cadres. These civilian qualifications enhance the capability of the military's roll as a psychological warfare condition, effectively cutting off ("desensitizing") the population from hope of gaining access to means for genuine control of the society.
8. "Hard" clinical brainwashing techniques. Sophisticated methods of behavioral modification, frequently employing such auxiliary techniques as electroshock, psychosurgery, psychopharmaceuticals, are too expensive to be proposed for general use against large populations and become too conspicuous and hence vulnerable in large-scale use for other than specialized and emergency applications. There are two general classes of exceptions, under which circumstances they will be used in preference to cruder "mass-production" functional techniques. Clinical conditioning is necessary for preparing a zombie operative for a special operation in which his behavior must be predictably preprogrammed. Clinical conditioning is also used selectively against key cadres of political opposition organizations. This type of brainwashing is used either to force a leader of such an organization to publicly repudiate or lie about the organization or to commit criminal act as an apparent agent of the organization.
The consequences of such brainwashing are virtually fatal to the victim's mind unless remission is effected within a reasonable period of time. The amount of brainwashing required to "break down" a leading member of a socialist organization is determined by the fact that such a person usually has developed a highly integrated world outlook based upon a characteristic
method of judgment. The problem presented to the brainwasher is analogous to that of inducing a modern mathematical physicist to become a fanatical advocate of the eighteenth century phlogiston-flux hypothesis. The higher cognitive capacities of the mind must be virtually destroyed. Hence, without early remission, the probable prognosis is terminal psychosis.
9. The combining of these various fascist tactics into the general form of fascism with a democratic face. The most essential feature of such a process is the coordination of the key individual features through pseudo-liberal and pseudo-left movements. In the U.S. itself, fascist agent Saul Alinsky and the late Walter Reuther have performed a key role in collaboration with the Rockefeller-CIA establishment generally (as social-democratic anti-Communists) and with the main centers of Lewinite influence. The export to Sweden (from Lewinite and Tavistockian U.S. and British centers) of corporativist "leaderless group" and "co-participation" recipes, to be re-exported by social-democrat Olaf Palme as the "Swedish Way" to socialism (!), is exemplary. The importance, to the Rockefeller agencies, of having a leading member of the Communist Party in Italy, Giorgio Amendola, act as a principal advocate of fascist restructuring throughout Europe is also exemplary. The key technique is exploiting the leadership of the demoralized left as advocate for the fascist programs directed principally against its own social base, so that fascism apparently takes power as the fruit of an anti-conservative alliance of liberal-left forces.
The only competent psychological theory premised upon therapeutic work is psychoanalysis. Whatever particular flaws cripple classical or Freudian psychoanalysis, its two essential positive features must be noted. First, the principal empirical categories it has discovered are in fact distinct phenomena which exist approximately as Freud was the first to describe them. Ego, Id, Superego, conscious, preconscious, unconscious are not mere statistical categories of mental phenomena; they act in fact as distinct, existent entities. There are serious errors of misappreciation of these entities by most reporting psychoanalysts but those are usually errors of inadequacy and not gross blunders respecting the evidence itself. Second, all ordinary phenomena of mental life, including those of neurosis and psychosis, depend directly upon the interplay among these principal categories in form approximately as Freud first accounted for this. By contrast, classical psychiatry and various behaviorist schools are broadly incompetent both as therapeutic doctrines and as hypothesis concerning the form of mental life.
Psychoanalysis must be assessed as we usually value an inadequately developed body of knowledge. No competent professional would go backwards to any earlier or competing hypotheses. As far as it goes it is relatively correct. Wherever we find it in error, we remove such errors only by advancing beyond what has already been accomplished.
There is a devastating methodological error within classical psychoanalysis, as we have already detailed in a series of writings on this subject. The point to be made in that connection is of direct and rather fundamental relevance to the problems presented by Anglo-American psychological warfare, so that we must summarily consider the issue here.
The strength of classical psychoanalysis is principally located in and restricted to its merits as a study and method of treatment of abnormal mental behavior. Specifically, it has almost exposed the connection between the psychopathology of abnormal behavior and that aspect of mental life termed the unconscious processes. Within those limitations, it has fully proven its unique competence for effecting improvements in cases of neurotic pathologies of this sort and also has a related intrinsic merit - less widely understood or practically realized - for treatment of psychosis.
The chief flaw in classical psychoanalysis is most efficiently identified as its substantial neglect of the positive features of mental life. This central shortcoming is best addressed from the standpoint of our preceding section's discussion of the problem of "perfection." Although psychoanalysis generally concurs on certain broad symptomatic definitions of sane behavior, no form of classical psychology has succeeded in elaborating a positive conception of sanity comparable to Freud's exploration of the psychopathologies of the unconscious processes. Freud's psychoanalysis shares the blunder with abnormal psychology in general of regarding sanity as an ideal "normal" condition. It implicitly defines sanity as the condition realized in the hypothetical case of the patient who has been successfully relieved of all pathological traits. It defines sanity (perfection) as an ideal fixed limit approached by the weeding-out of pathologies (imperfections).
The absurdity of psychoanalysis' assumption on this point ought to be obvious to anyone with significant clinical experience. The gist of the point should also be obvious to any intelligent layman. At one hypothetical extreme, we encounter individuals of outstanding personal character development - intellectual and moral achievements - who may nonetheless suffer from the most hideous sorts of psychopathologies. In the opposite extreme case, we meet persons whose character is lacking in intellectual or moral spark, but who appear relatively "normal," ostensibly free of more threatening sorts of psychic disturbances. Generally, the quality of social performance of individuals has a twofold aspect; it is the result both of what classical psychoanalysis considers and also of something ultimately more decisive, which psychoanalysis formerly did not consider.
What psychoanalysis failed to consider systematically was the quality of human mental processes which distinguishes man as human, the quality of creative innovation which we previously distinguished as the kernel of "human nature." The proper definition of sanity is indeed perfection, provided that perfection is defined from the standpoint of negentropy. It is the quality of creating and assimilating conceptions of technological and social forms of advance in society's power of social reproduction which is the active feature of the mind, the impulse upon which the qualities of superior intellectual and moral character development immediately depend.
This conclusion was probed and appropriate hypothesis subjected to tests of unique experiment in two interconnected ways. The historical evidence - as unique experimental evidence - for the positive existence of this perfecting, creative quality of human mentation was employed to circumscribe the individual human being, to define the quality which must necessarily be found and shown to be fundamental within his mental processes. Within that setting, the explicit phenomena of mental processes were directly, individually explored, and the indicated fundamental quality located and demonstrated in a unique way. These achievements, identified in the introductory work, "Beyond Psychoanalysis," are elaborated in that and subsequent papers on the "new psychoanalysis," and provide the broader, more advanced version of scientific psychology which we employ here.
For purposes of identification, we state the main ontological changes introduced to Freudian psychoanalysis by the discoveries. First, both the Superego and preconsciousness are significantly redefined on account of the recognition of the creative or noetic quality of "fundamental emotion" within those phases of mental life. Second, the "instinctual" identity of the so-called "Id" is eliminated and the deeper unconscious," the Freudian use, is systematically redefined. The "Id" is shown to be the rudimentary or infantile form of the Ego, and the distinction between the unconscious and Freudian unconscious is shown to involve only the difference in quality experienced in passing over into "depth analysis." Finally, the Freudian "libido theory" is discarded as specious without denying the evidence in favor of Freud's mistaken conclusions. In place of the "libido" as a fundamental emotion, the quality associated with the creative impulse is shown to be fundamental and the so-called libido phenomena merely derived.
As is underlined in "Beyond Psychoanalysis," the fallacy of the "libido theory" stands out as grotesque in
the failure of Freud and others to account for creative activity. The Freudian view permits nothing more to occur in creative activity than voluntary rearrangements of existing elements. It (rather hysterically) ignores the synthetic activity which creativity uniquely represents. The "libido" has the quality of the scalar magnitude of "energy" associated with entropy, whereas actual creativity has the quality of negentropy.
In Freudian views, the function of the Superego is essentially control of energies and impulses originating in unconscious processes. In reality, the Superego and preconsciousness are the location of the primary "energy" of mental life, and "libido" is essentially "zeroed" negentropy realized as infantile entropy. We can dissipate part of the problem which must obviously arise in the reader's mind. "Isn't sexual activity pretty basic? The answer to such ingenuous objections is that there are two distinct alternative origins for sexual arousal. A person may be aroused by the other person as an object ("libido") or a keener sense of arousal occurs as a result of the excitement of what might be termed a mutual reading of one another's mind.
There occurs, unfortunately too rarely, a synchronization of the activity of creative insight between two persons to the extent that a very small change in gesture and other minimal signals efficiently communicate back and forth an extensive and reliable detailed communication of the conscious mental processes occurring in each. This shared experience by a loving couple frequently evokes cumulatively an extraordinary degree of sensuous arousal. Couples who have experienced sexual relationships in which, alternatively, that sort of sensuous motivation and the ordinary "libidinal" sort both have been characteristic, know empirically the distinction between the two.
It is only the person who has never experienced anything but a "libidinal" form of "sexual attraction" who will desperately insist that the "libido" is a self-evident existence. Strictly speaking, a person who is capable of experiencing only a libidinal motivation for sexual relationships is strictly speaking psycho-sexually impotent.
Removing the flaws intrinsic to the Freudian outlook, psychoanalysis is properly redefined as a study of those pathologies which prevent the individual from realizing his intrinsic potentials for intellectual and moral development. Strictly speaking, every individual who has not developed qualities of genius is obviously a neurotic since virtually every human being has all the "intrinsic" potentialities to be what we might term a "genius." Furthermore, excepting the influence of pathologies to the contrary effect, there is no distinction between intellectual and moral qualities. A moral human being is obviously a person who proceeds from a competent, Spinozan conceptual overview of the interest of the human species as a whole, from the standpoint of enhancement of social-reproductive development. This moral condition is both a disposition to gain such understanding and the power of concentration-span and conceptualization of evidence to reach appropriate judgments.
As we shall indicate below, the individual who enjoys a conscious realization of the development of his intellectual potentials in that way has a different sense of identity than the normal or neurotic individual. Psychoanalysis is properly defined as a study and treatment if those pathological influences which prevent an individual from realizing that condition. In that
respect, the new psychoanalysis unifies the study of character development and relief of pathologies as a single enterprise.
The same methodological conceptions we have defined for ecology, "human nature," and general relativity inevitably settle the problem of the connection between scientific psychology and biology.
The individual physiological processes are the all-inclusive mediation of individual mental activity. Traumatic disturbances of that mediating physiology may critically impair the organic basis for effective mental processes. Malnutrition, especially during infancy and early childhood, may abort the development of the individual's mental capacities. Biology generally and medicine in particular have such invaluable peripheral contributions to make to mental health. Medicine also has an important secondary bearing on psychology in connection with the reflexive internal features of psychosomatic disturbances. That much is acknowledged by the very definition of a competent psychological science.
Yet, neither present-day biology nor medicine has further competence concerning psychology as such. Psychological science is uniquely and comprehensively defined as the study of "human nature" within the primary functional context of human ecology. The immediate empirical basis for scientific psychology is social, not individual-biological. The competence of biology is limited to exploring the necessary appropriateness of physiology, investigating physiology as the mediating bases for the development of the kinds of mental processes the evolutionary existence of society demands of its individual members.
Present-day biology is permeated by a specific incompetence which disqualifies it from even the claim to interpret the explicit connections between physiological and psychological processes. If we define physiology as present-day biology defines it, the organic processes directly and indirectly involved in mental activity are no more part of the mind than raw materials, aluminum cans, automobiles, and flavored soda water are the internal constituents of the specific skills of productive labor. So long as we define physiology in the terms generally accepted among biologists, the physiological movements within the human brain, etc., have approximately the same significance for mental processes as the flows of individual commodities have to the increased productivity of human labor. These physiological activities, even as present-day biology knows them, are obviously essential for the realization and reproduction of mental processes, but those biological activities so defined are not in themselves mental processes. They represent, as we have stated, the essential mediation of individual mental life internally.
One part of the problem is that contemporary biology is enslaved to an outlived, mechanistic-reductionist misconception of physical processes generally. The models accepted by most biologists are premised on such axiomatic misconceptions. For them, the entire universe is mischaracterized metaphysically as if it were governed by a law of universal entropy ("God's clock") - or, what is sometimes termed "the second law of thermodynamics."
All biological processes are in fact empirically distinguished as living by their characteristic negentropy. Entropy specifies a dominant feature of organic material only to the extent we are studying the
ways in which organisms die or undergo post-mortem decay. The evolution of the use of the term, "negative entropy" emphasizes the cited metaphysical bias. Present-day bio-thermodynamical models define the activities characteristic of the reproduction and development of living processes as violations of entropy (hence the term "negative entropy"). They define life as something beyond the comprehension of science as biologists presently know science. Life is not a positive empirical phenomenon for them, but only a metaphysical negative actuality.
To overcome such a blatant error, biology would be required to locate empirically the "microphysical" feature of the genetic-reproduction processes of living tissues which was in direct, positive correspondence with the trans-invariant characteristic. Biology would be required to situate itself within a hylozoic view of the universe as outlined in our preceding section. In that case, and only in that case, could a revolutionary biological science begin to comprehend those features of biological processes which determine both evolution and the physiological processes directly mediating the phenomena of mental life.
Even when that had been accomplished, the biologist would still not be able to account for mental behavior from the standpoint of individual biology as such. He would be enabled to account only for the physiological possibility of mental behavior. This possibility he would define as the susceptibility of the human physiology for such externally-induced development. He would be able to show physiologically why human beings, and not baboons or higher apes, are uniquely susceptible of social evolution and human psychology. He would be able to sort out correlated physiological features of mental processes. From his successes of that limited but invaluable sort, he would contribute more exact knowledge of the ways to enhance the immediate biological environment (nutritionally, etc.) of the mental processes, consequently increasing our realization of the physiological preconditions appropriate to more advanced development of each individual. He would also begin to resolve the extremely important psychosomatic potentialities of the individual for causing and inhibiting general organic disease and increasing or reducing the susceptibility of the human body to infectious diseases.
Such magnificent accomplishments would not contribute more than marginally in themselves to our knowledge of psychology as such. Individual human physiology remains merely the essential specific mediation for the development of the socially-determined mental processes expressed by that physiology.
Since the "Five Questions" of Marsilio Ficino, man has had the conceptual key to defining the interconnection between physiology and the social determination of mind. From the standpoint of physiology, the forms of behavior associated with qualitative mental development are analogs of biological evolution among lower species. The specific form of mediation of mental development by physiological processes must therefore depend upon the capacity of social relations to effect the equivalent of genetical changes in the elaborated development of the physiological substrate of mind. Although the cognitive processes associated with a human's simple perception are obviously determined in a related way, we properly distinguish the strict use of the term "cognition" to those more conspicuous forms of synthesizing activities, associated with the process of self-development of the individual's mental capacities. The immediate point here
is that the social determination of mind does not signify that mind is a metaphysical existence. Provided we properly define the fundamental hylozoic laws of the material universe in which we exist, social relations are material relations and the social determination of specific evolutions of individual physiological correlatives of mentation is a lawful material process.
The physician is occasionally an essential collaborator for successful psychoanalytical work. The psychoanalyst must be assured that the mental dysfunctions he encounters are etiologically psychological, and are not caused or significantly aggravated by organic or infectious diseases. Although psychoanalysis (as a non-medical practice) is the fundamental basis for treating the causes of psychosomatic disorders, the analyst here requires the assistance of the physician on two counts. In general, many psychosomatic disorders inevitably take on a life of their own, as organic dysfunctions which must be treated as problems within the special competence of physicians. Obviously, the preliminary diagnosis of a probably psychosomatic disorder, and on-going supervision of the subject's progress also demands the special competences of the physician.
There are therefore reasons society might wish to have the profession of psychoanalysis performed by persons of special qualifications in the field of internal medicine. The obvious importance of collaboration between the two professions suggests that the patient is best served by an individual combining both competences. In practice, such supermen can be available only most rarely; in general practice, a division of labor and close collaboration between the two professions is the workable approach.
If the layman will merely note the number of years required for competence in each profession, psychoanalysis and internal medicine, the combined psychoanalyst-internist emerges as a person who has completed his apprenticeship by approximately the age of thirty-five to forty. To maintain his competence in both fields, thereafter he must divide his practice between specialized activities in both. Since effective psychoanalytical work should not involve more than approximately twenty-five patient-hours per week (after which it becomes inferior piece-work), a combination psychoanalyst-internist has a life-expectancy of somewhat more than 12,000 productive patient hours for his post-apprenticeship career. Similarly, the available benefits of the internal medicine training of the combined psychoanalyst-internist are reduced by his obligations to psychoanalytical practice. By dividing the two professions, the useful activity of the trained graduate is approximately trebled in respect to the amount of training invested by society.
The argument for such a division of professional labors becomes qualitatively stronger as soon as the nature of psychoanalytical work is understood. Excepting the important reflexive psychosomatic features for a moment, all of the other principal categories of mental life encountered in clinical work function experimentally as if the mind were essentially a deus ex machina superimposed upon the biological individual. In terms of treatment of primary causes, even the psychosomatic disorders act as if they were under direct control of "purely mental" processes. Provided that the psychoanalyst has an active collaboration with specialists in internal medicine, there is nothing within the domain of psychology as such which requires formal medical training.
All psychopathology is associated with some degree of paranoia, and the process of deterioration through neurosis into outright insanity (psychosis) converges upon some symptomatic form of a general condition known as paranoid-schizophrenia or simply schizophrenia. All Anglo-American psychological warfare technology is premised on pragmatic notions of the susceptibility of the individual or group to be driven toward some degree of such psychosis.
The ordinary misuse of the term paranoia by laymen and by some reckless professionals has nothing to do with this. All paranoia is nothing but the superimposition if the mother-image-dominated world-outlook of infancy and early childhood upon the real events of the adult world. The prevalence of this psychopathological trait among so-called normal people is typified by the maudlin sentiment frequently attached to such terms as "mother country," "mother tongue," and the identification of the Central Intelligence Agency as "Mother" among those closely associated with it.
This fact has its basis in the process by which new-born infants are transformed into normal, i.e., neurotic, adults. A summary of the main points of that development is a necessary grounding for understanding psychological warfare.
The newborn infant is psychologically purblind. He is incapable, as an infant, of developing rational forms of behavior through individual direct exploration of the world around him. His infant's world, as he begins to become aware of it, centers around either his mother or a mother-surrogate. His capacity to survive, insofar as the notion of survival is expressed in his outlook, is his ability to command this central mother figure.
This mother figure is not the mother as an actual person. It is characteristic of neurotic individuals that even into the last years of their lives they are unable to adduce a competent conception of their mother as an actual person from their empirical knowledge of her. Instead of the real mother, their internalized mother- image is a fantastic creature. This fantastic, false image is of such psychological importance that they must suppress recognition of their actual mother in the interest of protecting the image of the fantasy-mother.
The basis for this fantasy is elementary. The role performed by the mother in infancy is immediately acting to control most of those features of the immediate environment which the infant and young child regard as essentially relevant to their existence. The infant and young child do not see the mother as a person, but as a symbol for the predominant potency of their existence, a potency defined for them by the importance and form of the role she performs. On this account, virtually every child regards his internalized fantasy-mother as a witch. As we have shown elsewhere, all the myths concerning witches and witchcraft conform to the fantastic view of the mother-centered world as seen by the infant and young child. Similarly, belief in magic, astrology, and superstition generally are symptomatic of a severe paranoia of adults, and of the relative backwardness of cultures.
The infantile view of the internalized mother-image as a witch is associated with the notion of the boundaries of the real mother's ostensibly magical powers. These are approximately the boundaries of the family, and of mother's apparent domination of the family. Beyond the infant or infantile sees the irrational "outer world," from which come the "outsiders," the "strangers," who by
virtue of not being subject to mother's witchcraft are axiomatically malevolent. (The sociological notion of radical-democratic "local community control" is intrinsically a replication of an infantile, paranoid world-outlook.)
As the child develops, relations with the father, siblings and other persons develop the rudiments of actual consciousness and Ego. As this is accompanied by exploration of the "outer world," the child begins to acquire a sense of rational determination of cause-effect relationships. In the unfortunately rarer and happier instance, in which the extension from the mother to both mother and father is mediated by a loving relationship between the parents, or in which the father shows superior psychic potency, a powerful self-feeding process of general intellectual and moral character development becomes conspicuous by the second through third year of the child's life.
Later the parental authorities are complemented by surrogate-parent authorities, which generally increase in importance as the child's entry into the "outer world" progresses.
During this process, beginning during early childhood, three contending kinds of internalized influence govern the child's behavior. The first influence is the becoming-unconscious need to regard each act as an implicit (or, explicit) propitiation of the witch-mother. This is the unconscious influence associated with the most primitive root of the Ego, sometimes termed the "Id." At the other extreme, the healthy child is experiencing the power, the creative mental activity, through which it can discover the laws of cause-and-effect universally applicable to a widening world of activity. The child associates this rational quality of self with the power to act lovingly for others generally. This confidence in its capacity to create and accumulate rational knowledge as the guide to behavior is the quality of the child's developing Ego. In between, the child's mind compromises, tending to delimit the exercise of its reason to those forms of judgment and behavior which are accepted as rational by social authority. These latter two influences are commonly confused as one, and termed ego-ideals.
For sound empirical reasons, classical psychoanalysis, such as that of Freud, associates the ego-ideals with a kind of prescience (semi-consciousness) in the mind termed Superego, and describes the dynamics of consciousness and behavior as the outcome of the struggle between the Superego and unconscious influences for control of the Ego. That description is partially valid. In fact, provided we correct Freud's mistakenly simplified view, and recognize two contending agencies at work "within" the Superego, Superego, unconscious, and Ego act as distinct entities within mental processes, and are not merely descriptive terms for classes of events.
In the normal or neurotic adult, two distinct universes are being acted upon simultaneously. The conscious mind, directly associated with the Ego, is responding primarily to actual occurrences in the real world by the standard of ego-ideals. At the same time, the real world is being interpreted as if it were merely a fantasy, a dream of the unconscious mind. The events in the real world are treated as symbols for events within the unconscious mind. This "dream" is a grotesque parody of infant and childhood life as interpreted by the mind of the infant and young child. In this world, the witch-mother and magic rule according to the accrued propitiatory rules. In this unconscious world, the adult is reliving in a grotesque fashion the issues of infancy and childhood.
The neurotic's or psychotic's connection between the real and unconscious world is made through accrued patterns of association, by which the complexity of the outer (real) world is reduced to the rudimentary form of the infant-childhood world. All primary authorities are symbolically guises for mother's authority; hence the neurotic's "mother country," "mother tongue." The simple hierarchies of positive and negative authorities and conditional terms of propitiatory and anti-propitiatory of infancy and childhood define the "geometry" through which the unconscious mind gives symbolic values to the outer world.
The mind is constantly attempting to satisfy both ego-ideals and infantile demands simultaneously. It is, on the one hand, attempting to respond to the actual world by the standard of socialized ego-ideals. Simultaneously, it is attempting to act in a way which will be symbolically interpreted in the conscious mind as a satisfactory elaboration of the recurring nightmare effort to propitiate the witch-mother, for a happy resolution of the fantastic reconstruction of infancy and early childhood life. We ordinarily recognize the results of this arrangement as overtly neurotic behavior whenever a powerful intrusion of unconscious (or "felt") needs overwhelms the ego-ideals, causing irrational behavior. The victim reports, "I know it was stupid, but I couldn't seem to help myself." Otherwise, although less visibly to the ordinary layman's eye, the unconscious fantasy is exerting a powerful, somewhat disguised influence over all behavior.
The regulatory process operates essentially as follows. The mind recognizes that the possibility of individual existence depends on control of those social forces upon which the individual actually depends for existence. To the extent the individual is infantile, he interprets this dependency to mean the need to maintain an immediately favorable opinion of himself among a chosen set of peers and authorities. To the extent the individual is mature, he locates his right to necessary degrees of social control entirely in the rationality of his behavior, even despite the opinion of peers and authorities for any short-run period. The longer the forward span and broader the scope for
which the individual defines rationality as overriding mere opinion of his conceptions or behavior, the more mature, intelligent, and sane he is. The mind censors thought and action by a semi-conscious or prescient anticipation of the social consequences of an act or expressed opinions by those cited standards. The anticipation of a favorable outcome (whether in terms of opinion or rational consequence) enhances the thought and act - strengthens the Ego; an unfavorable outcome depresses.
In the sane individual, the rational predominates to the extent that there is no longer a neurotic dependency upon immediate peer-group or authority's opinion. A Spinozan ethic is characteristic. This person's sense of identity is uniquely associated with the primary importance of his self-development of the capacity to act to enhance the existence of the human species. Relative to short-term authority, he is hubristic.
In the hypothetical ideal neurotic (who is never either hubristic nor subject to overtly irrational impulses contrary to ego-ideals), his behavior is always formally rational, but never rational in overall systematic psychological content. He is the ideal empiricist, to whom what society defines as rational has become a habit. To the extent that the form of judgment he has yearned is rational in effect, his behavior is ordinarily rational in effect. However, the deeper content of this behavior is his paranoid dependency upon favorable opinion. The authority for his behavior is those authorities which certify ego-ideals which govern his behavior. To the extent these authorities are authoritative for the stratum of society whose opinion of him he "respects," he is able to behave rationally (in effect) and also satisfy his infantile needs for a propitiatory form of behavior.
Academic liberal arts professions are generally models of such neurotic behavior. The way in which "authorities" are cited, the tradition of "liberal arts scholarship," is exemplary of the way in which an approximately rational form is effected by essentially infantile means.
The neurotic, as illustrated by this hypothetical pure type, represents a half-way point between infantilism (psychosis) and actual sanity. He is governed by ego-ideals which are subject to the approximately rational demands of the outer world (in effect), and usually suppresses his own irrational overtly infantile impulses in order to adhere to those ego-ideals. Yet, he has circumscribed and truncated this formal rationality by merely substituting outer-world authority for such behavior in place of infantile-world authority. He organizes his knowledge of the semi-rational ego-ideals in a propitiatory way (e.g., empiricism).
In practice, the social effect is rational (or approximately rational) but the underlying psychological form is literally paranoid. The psychological process is regulated by propitiatory-associative rituals. Hence, if his ego-ideals are undermined in authority without providing him with better ego-ideals, he must tend to collapse into pure paranoia, or psychosis.
From the standpoint of the foregoing summary we can now offer essentially accurate and useful definitions of both psychosis and paranoia. In psychosis, control of adult outer world behavior is more or less directly under control of the witch-centered unconscious processes. Each outer-world event, object, and person has merely its symbolic value for the unconscious fantasy, and the individual's response occurs as a symbolic act reflecting a decision made in terms of the unconscious fantasy life.
What we have described is relatively the extreme case. In such an extreme, the loss of ego-ideals efficient for the real world virtually destroys the adult aspect of the Ego, and only a grotesque residue, corresponding to the infantile-self aspect of the Ego's past, is actively manifest. This inverted, residual or ego-ideal-stripped Ego is sometimes called the "Id." The homicidal psychotic, whose principal concern is to kill either his mother or a symbolic surrogate for her, or to punish his mother-image, or finally possess her for himself by killing a symbolic father, etc., is the notorious extreme.
The intermediate forms of psychosis exist, in which ego-ideals apparently operate, but in a chaotic or irrational aggregation and sequence of clusters of such ideals. To understand these we must point out the error of omission in the hypothetical ideal neurotic case.
No approximately sane individual could exist on the basis of merely learned ego-ideals. However suppressed, the noetic or concept-creating faculty, which is predominant only in relatively saner persons, is an underlying active complement of the neurotic's mental processes. This cognitive function, by which he assimilates concepts as concepts, is the underlying activity which enables him to judge the proper rational connection among ordinary ego-ideals, while otherwise directly producing his occasional actually creative acts and his expressions of genuine lovingness.
If this cognitive function is significantly damaged or suppressed under circumstances in which a number of developed ego-ideals are also discredited, the result will be an lethal psychotic or semi-psychotic person.
This would appear an arbitrary assertion only to those who refuse to recognize the distantness of the Ego within mental processes as a whole. The uninformed or hysterical person asserts that whatever is dumped from his head into society is the activity of an "I" which subsumes all the activities within his mental processes. This is not the way the mind functions. The mental processes as a whole associate the notion of "me-ness" or "I" only with an aspect of the person's mental activities as a whole. The mind also includes mental activities which are associated with various activities by a "he," "her," or "them." In various senses of such a picture, the mind of every individual is heavily populated, to the extent that some of the various "personalities" contained are each potentially capable of "taking over control of" the shared body.
The Ego is that aspect of mind which is normally associated with principal control of the body, which selects from all of the various aspects of total mental activity those which the body normally expresses. Even most unconsciously determined bodily activity ordinarily reflects, directly or indirectly, this controlling role of the Ego, the distinct sense of "I-ness."
In extreme pathology, in which the Ego relinquishes direct control of the body, the control of the body by an unfamiliar mental personality (e.g., one of the "he’s), and the habituated influence of the Ego on the body result in various sorts of overt disassociation. The "normal" correlation of bodily attitudes, facial expressions, and gestures may be out of phase with the statements and related forms of explicit response ostensibly being made by the person.
In the semi-psychotic brainwash victim, the gestures and so forth may obviously contradict what the person is doing or saying - suggesting a special quality of lying in the brainwashed person's overt responses - or may,
more specifically, represent the Ego's effort to "freeze," to do nothing to cause its presence within the body to be noticed. In a variation, the Ego may be collaborating in the lying by focussing the body on some object, frequently an object which can occupy the hands. A cigarette sometimes becomes most important to victims as a way of suppressing symptoms of the Ego's restiveness under stress. In general, a recurring fixed smile or grin, or a combination of awkwardly violent actions mixed with periods of almost quivering rigidity of posture, etc., may be the obvious symptoms which attract the professional's eye.
It is such characteristic or elucidable conflicts over control over the body by the weakened Ego and a surrogate "he," "she," "they" or "it" (the Id proper), which justify the preservation of the classical psychiatric term, schizophrenia, for all forms of psychosis. The grinning, or fixed-smile, or enraged face of the psychotic or semi-psychotic is not that of the real person, the Ego. Somewhere within the same mental processes, there exists a distinct personality, the real "I" or Ego, which is either totally or partially suppressed. Relative sanity is achieved almost instantly (and sometimes this is literally the case) as the Ego bursts forth into more or less total control of the person's behavior.
Electro-convulsive shock "therapy" and sub-compulsive electroshock work on that feature of the mind. By subjecting the individual to repeated, sufficiently acute torture under circumstances in which the person has no active foresight of escape, one can "pop out" either the Ego or a pseudo-Ego as one chooses. Where shock produces an apparently therapeutic result, the pseudo-personality has been terrorized back into its pit in the unconscious processes, and the Ego comes forth with a sigh of momentary relief.
The reverse works. Terrorize the Ego into hiding and bring forth a pseudo-Ego. It may be, in simple behavioral modification programs a more infantile version of the self, the reconstruction of a past state of development of the Ego, or a synthesized pseudo-personality (less simple). In general, this is effected by increasing the infantilism (neurotic qualities) of the victim, which brings what is termed the "Id" into prominence.
The apparently "spontaneous" expression of homosexuality or what is clinically termed polymorphous perversion generally during or following various forms of brainwashing or under implicitly brainwashing coercive environmental situations is a correlative of this same point. The occurrence of lesbianism in "radical" women's "consciousness-raising" groups is an inevitable correlative of the criminal features of the "transactional therapy" involved. Polymorphic perversion is a direct correlative of infantile regression of the adolescent or adult to an analog-parody of an early childhood state. The historical and, more broadly, anthropological clinical evidence concerning dionysiac forms of behavior, the connection of these to various forms of sado-masochistic sex cults, and so forth, belong to the same general phenomena of psychosis and semi-psychosis.
The point we have just made concerning the pathological features of non-Ego control also applies in a different way to higher functions of the healthy mental processes. In most experiences of creative work by the individual, the mental activity generating the conceptual solution-insight to a problem occurs outside the individual's Ego-connected conscious processes. The individual regards this synthesis as a flash of insight.
He regards this as a symptom for an activity which has occurred just beyond the scope of consciousness, and the discovery which results as the outpouring in conscious form of something that has been given to him from outside consciousness. Psychoanalysis identified the locus of such creative activity as preconscious and associates this as the activity of an agency termed the Superego.
This same Superego, in a similar fashion, determines the censorship of conscious ideas according to ego-ideals, employing a quality of mental activity related to that employed in actual creative synthesis of conceptions.
At this point, it is useful to introduce a pedagogical model. It should not be interpreted to apply literally beyond the restricted purposes of illustration for which we introduce it here.
We can make a rather useful summary of the overall normally neurotic adult mind by describing it as composed of three principal features. In the middle, there is the Ego, which is the agency normally associated with conscious thought and direct control of the body's willful behavior. At the lower end of the Ego, there is a pit filled with witches, goblins, ghosts and other monstrosities, dominated by a creature which is a fantastic symbol for the infantile mother-image. This is the aspect of the person pulling the Ego toward a world-view characterized by "mother country," "mother tongue" and other narrowly egoistical or infantile preoccupations. At the other extreme, there is the Superego, which represents the contrary rational pull of the real world. Pulled between them sits the harassed Ego, like Buridan's Ass, sadly inquiring, "How can I satisfy both of you at the same time?"
To the extent that the Superego has developed and exerts the strongest control over the Ego, we have the person of superior character. He is a person whose sense of himself is primarily that of an individual acting in a way which agrees with the interest of the human species more or less generally. This judgment is not "merely an opinion." The Superego thinks.
A truly sane person would be one in which the Ego and Superego had become effectively identical, in contrast to the other extreme, the pure psychotic, in which the stripped-down Ego and its "Id" tail have become effectively identical.
There is, however, a doubleness to the Superego's knowledge. At the highest level of its development and activity, it represents creative mental activity, judging the universe scientifically from this standpoint. It is however enslaved to the experience of the Ego, and defines the scope of reality as the Ego's accommodation to the unconscious permits. Hence, the neurotic's Superego usually interprets the standards of rationality evidently accepted by society as an integral part of a lawful, scientific ordering of the universe - even though the Superego's more characteristic processes constantly reject those ego-ideals as inconsistent.
Because of the sensuous association of socialized ego-ideals with manifest social authority, altering the real situation of the Ego such that the existing ego-ideals break down, and that this breakdown is threatened to persist to the limits of the Ego's forward horizon, causes the validity of the ego-ideals themselves to be undermined. The means for accomplishing this is to constantly emphasize the immediacy and power of the coercive authority which is
impelling the individual to repudiate established ego-ideals.
This emphasis upon immediacy and discrediting of ego-ideals is a direct attack on the individual's Superego, which has the following characteristic consequences. (1) The individual's intellectual powers are drastically weakened, so that the activity and influence of higher cognitive powers virtually vanish, the ability to comprehend more advanced conceptions vanishes, and the individual's mental behavior is characterized by regression toward simpler, earlier-childhood levels of mental achievement - a drastic reduction in the real "I.Q." (2) The individual's moral judgment is crippled. Social imperatives are rejected in favor of egoistical criteria of the form "I really like," "I really dislike," etc. (3) The change in personality is accompanied by pathological lying concerning the nature of the change and concerning the premises and internal content of former beliefs and behavior. (4) The transition is mediated by drastic changes in social relationships. Immediately, the dependency upon the mother-image and childhood family is sharply increased with concomitant sharp increases in childishness in behavior. Any predominant psychosexual attachment distinctly associated with the healthy state of mind is hysterically rejected and some new psychosexual attachment, associated with the new attitudes and beliefs, must usually develop in order to defeat the threatened influence of memory of the old attachment.
The condition is self-aggravating. The brainwash victim who has deteriorated to the point of showing all four symptoms will undergo self-feeding decay of personal character up to the point of overt psychotic breakdown unless successfully treated or at least resituated in an environment identified with the pre-brainwashing identity, attitudes and beliefs. If situated in the latter environment, the victim may begin to spontaneously remit within weeks or less.
In all these various states, sanity, neurosis, semi-psychotic brainwash victim, psychotic, all the entities of the mind are present and active. As the Ego is merely repressed in active psychotic states, the Superego as a potential directly-ruling agency of creativity is inhibited in normal neurotic states of effective domination by the Ego. All three sets of agencies, Superego, Ego, and the hobgoblins of the infantilist pit, are constantly active in some form at all times, all sharing access to the particular experiences of the individual, which each interprets from its own special vantage-point.
The ultimate object of proper psychotherapy is to effect a total integration of the Ego with the Superego. The ordinary object of contemporary competent psychotherapy is usually limited to effect the relative freedom of the Ego from control by the fantastic hobgoblins of the pit, and to establish a collaborative relationship between that Ego and the Superego. In the final analysis, these objectives are convergent. It is by developing the strength of the Superego that the Ego can be freed from extreme neurosis and psychosis. There is no possible way in which a competent pure Ego psychology or Ego-psychology form of psychotherapy could be developed.
Staging the Psychosis
Earlier we identified the gist of Lewin's schemes. Where fascists before him had demanded certain forms of "structural reforms" in capitalist society as the goal of their political revolution, he purposed that capitalists should introduce these reforms as a means for creating the kind of controlled environment in which a majority of the population would brainwash itself into adopting a fascist world-outlook.
There are three interconnected demands whose advocacy is the infallible litmus test of fascist ideology: local community control, co-determination, and a "social contract" among representatives of government, employers, and employees (corporativism). From the basic principles of psychology we have reviewed above, it is not difficult to show a direct connection between the fascist arguments for these three demands and the sort of infantilism produced by coercive behavior modification. There is nothing accidental in the suitability of fascist structural reforms for mass brainwashing.
A brief review of fascist demagogy helps establish the pertinent connections.
The center of all fascist demagogy is the issue of the alleged "alienation" of the classless "little man." (A once-famous book, Hans Fallada's Little Man, What Now?, is a worthwhile reference on this point.) The hero of the fascist's tearjerker, the "little man," is a composite of a radical-conservative dentist and a ragged rogue from "The Threepenny Opera." He is afflicted with two principal obsessions: society has become so big and technologically-complex that it is now denounced as beyond his power of comprehension. This society is so big that he is lost in it; people do not recognize his importance as an individual. He demands a small society, in which he is more conspicuous and influential, a small society which is governed according to uncomplicated, simple "felt needs."
The fascist demagogue is bitterly opposed to three features of "industrial society," on which grounds he usually regards socialist society as more offensive than capitalist.
The first of these is "bigness." For him, the world should be returned to a more comprehensible ("less alienated") form, like that of some idealized rural village.
He hates technology. Technology has made him dependent upon a complicated mass-industrial form of life; technology means science. Science means some agency which judges the rationality or irrationality of his demands. Science denies him a fuller range of freedom of choice - denies him the "freedom" to be irrational as "felt needs" demand that. He praises a diminishing of the role of technology, in favor of a return to what he espouses as "more natural ways" - pastoral idiocy, "natural foods," and in the extreme case, freedom from "unnatural" ego-ideals in favor of the free play of polymorphous perversity.
Similarly, he sees the oppressive agencies of bigness and technology summed up in a third hated element: the notion of universals, the notion of certain specific programmatic demands as expressing the universal self-interest of a class and of the human species as a whole. He denied any evolutionary principle, for the came reasons.
Every fascist is a cultural relativist (and every cultural relativist is implicitly - at least - a fascist ideologue).
The common psychopathological feature of all the fascist's demands is infantilism. The fascist is a paranoid, who defines himself as such by his attempt to impose the principle of the autonomous extended family, and to block out the reality of a universality and rationality in the "outer world" as a whole. The notorious fact of Hitler's and Rudolf Hess's astrologers exemplifies this superstition of the fascist generally. Nationalism (mother country), racialism (mother), language-group (mother tongue), cultural affinity-groups (family traditions), community (extended family, neighborhood), natural (anti-rationalism), and so forth are all symptoms of potentialities for acute neurosis or semi-psychosis. They are all characteristic of propitiatory-associative (paranoid) world-outlooks.
A fascist movement's characteristic class differentiation is consistent with this. Although significant proportions of workers may be won over to a fascist movement under exceptional circumstances of atomization, the natural appeal of that movement's ideology is to terrified petit-bourgeois and lumpen-proletarian strata, whose doubly-estranged relationship to the productive forces (social reality) is distinctly conducive to paranoid tendencies.
The emphasis on the "little man" is exemplary. The actual alienation of the petit-bourgeois and lumpen-proletarian is located in their extreme individualization. Their sense of social identity is commonly a reaction formation evoked by this atomization. They see themselves as existing by means of their ability as individuals to influence the behavior of those immediately around them, their individual power (by physical force or suasion or both) over others. What they neurotically regard as desirable is a corresponding sense of egotistical
individual power (property, individual influence) and some individual idiosyncrasy ("my thing") which they mistake for their social identity. What they pathetically mistake for "alienation" is anything which threatens to strip away the illusion of that hermetic, heteronomic individuality. Fascism offers them an apotheosis of their characteristic actual alienation from humanity.
Although capitalists may be drawn into the fascist movement as individuals, the capitalist class as a class is not a part of that social movement, but its sponsor and master. The capitalists' fascism is essentially located in the Schachtian policies of accumulation through negative development, and in the apparent utility of fascist movements as instruments of that economic policy.
On the opposite side, the industrial working class is, normally, organically anti-fascist. The working class can be induced to submit to fascism only on condition that the socialist political organizations as well as the trade-union organizations are broken or self-discredited, and that conditions of mass unemployment have been aggravated to the point of atomization that the workers can be induced to tolerate fascism as a condition for enjoying employment of any sort under any working conditions at any miserable level of wages offered.
The fascist in old Germany or today's U.S. is typically the counterculture freak, the drug-culture denizen, the disoriented unemployed or semi-employed military veteran, the depression-crazed clerk, salesman, professional, the slum hustler and the slumlord alike, the criminal strata - and fear-maddened former liberals generally.
In the U.S. today, the hard core of sponsors of fascist proposals are former liberals. They are chiefly Democratic Party "left-wingers" supplemented by "Eastern Establishment" Republican and Buckleyite Conservative spokesmen. A similar phenomenon persisted
in Weimar and Nazi Germany. Hjalmar Schacht himself is the epitome of this.
The Brooklyn-born Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht was the founder of the German liberal party. (Today's Free Democratic Party of the German Federal Republic is the result of a post-war fusion of the pre-1933 Schacht and Hugenberg machines under the sponsorship of the Anglo-American occupying powers.) The basic programs of the Nazi regime, especially the policies which led into the Nazi conquests and genocide programs, were not developed by the Nazis themselves, but were dictated to the Nazis by the liberals, led by Schacht. The liberals are typified by Hitler refugee Abba Lerner, who has consciously resurrected Schacht's policies with the explanation that if the Weimar Republic had carried out the Nazi (i.e., liberal) austerity programs, the German financiers would not have found Hitler "necessary."
Schacht is significant not because he himself was a liberal, but because he was a chief sheep-herder of liberals. Schacht was a leading executive of the capitalist financier class, and therefore no sheep. The significance of the liberals as a semi-mass or mass phenomena is that the mass of liberals are the petit-bourgeois sheep of capitalist society. When crisis drives the liberal petit-bourgeois sheep insane, fascist, it is their liberal machine, such as the liberal wing if today's U.S. Democratic Party, which becomes frequently the principal vehicle for introducing fascist programs (of austerity-oriented "full employment"), and transforming fascist movements into a major threat. Hitler did not seize power; the German ex-liberals awarded him power. It is the petit-bourgeois (e.g., paranoid) social-contract tendency of the mass-based liberal machines which determines this virtually axiomatic and automatic transformation under conditions of the most profound social crises.
The psychopathic kernel of Lewin's proposals is therefore this. The fascist "structural reforms," local community control, co-determination, and "social contract," are the assertion of the unconscious infantile realm at the expense of the relative rationality of former socializing ego-ideals. Fascism is the world desired in the paranoid dreams of the "Id." Conversely, if the atomized individual's world is converted into a controlled environment which conforms to such fascist "structural reforms," the victim's mind will discover that only its potential paranoid self provides it with a means for agreement with that controlled environment.
We examine summarily the following exemplary current features of the Rockefeller agencies' psychological warfare programs in those terms: press control, local community control, co-determination, "social contract," rock-drug counterculture, and "ecology movement" superstition & primitivism.
1. Press Control
Control of the editorial policies of the news agencies determining the selection and slanting of major national and international news creates "desensitization" effects in the mass population, by causing the socially-accredited interpretation of cause-effect relations to violate sensuous rational interpretation of experience. This is worsened by insinuating into the slanting of news those kinds of maudlin "human interest" appeals which are relatively more gratifying to the infantile impulses and which de-emphasize a rational or scientific overview.
The latter is illustrated by the "man in the street interview" technique. The emphasis upon "How do you
'feel' about this, Miss Jones?" as the acceptable interpretation of issues and reality is an extremely effective direct appeal to infantilism when extended to the point of establishing "feeling" rather than knowledge as the content of popular political and related issues. The approach which states, "I don't wish to hear what you know, but what you feel," is an ABC tactic of brainwashing.
2. Local Community Control
The object of "local community control" as a fascist counterinsurgency tactic is to fragment the subject population into relatively hermetic political groupings of approximately the dimensions of an extended village family. This is accomplished by exploiting every possible appeal to infantilism in the dupes. Race, national-origin, immediate locality, and so forth. The psychopathetic effects of this initial fragmentation are enhanced by using the same tactic to attack the individual's sense of identity in psychosexual terms. The way in which "radical feminism" and "sexual freedom" (polymorphous perversity) have been exploited for such effects is exemplary.
The first degree of brainwashing is accomplished by setting "local community autonomy" into principled opposition to "bigness," technology, and universalizing programs. Local community control is set and principled opposition to trade-unionism. Non-material demands, especially "felt needs," are used to undermine technology-oriented (material) demands. Universalizing
programs are denounced as efforts of "outsider elitist groups" to interfere in the autonomous affairs of the local group.
At that point, the "community group" has become functionally semi-psychotic and clinically paranoid as a group. To the extent that the member restricts his or her social identity to within such a group, the effort to adjust to the group ideals induces corresponding pathological states in the member.
By setting contiguous such groups into competition, and by splitting the groups internally (race, sex, etc.), the paranoia is intensified, the movement toward semi-psychosis is increased. They are allied (as a herded aggregation to form a mass) against trade-unions, mass political organizations, technology, and universalizing programs, but they are otherwise in cutthroat heteronomic hostility toward one another.
Co-determination is an effectual chimera except under conditions of general austerity. As long as it is feasible to force capitalists (out of their own self-interest) to make significant reformist economic concessions concerning real income and working conditions, this possibility undermines every effort to institute co-determination as a fascist structural reform. It is only under conditions in which trade-union and other mass institutions are being defeated in their resistance to deteriorating real incomes and working conditions that co-determination becomes an effective tool of the fascist counterinsurgency specialists.
The internal principle of co-determination is token rewards offsetting major reductions in real incomes, employment, and working conditions. The employer offers to "give back" a token-portion of the value being
exacted. The group which participates in the co-determination will be permitted to select and negotiate for its preferred form of receipt of this token. The group which refuses co-determination will not receive any form of that token amount.
Thus, the "democratic" pseudo-negotiation becomes the basis for the identity of the group-organization, reinforcing the loss of reality.
4. "Social Contract"
In form, "social contract" (corporativism) is apparently co-determination on a larger scale. Government, employers, and labor representatives (plus, perhaps "consumer representatives") negotiate to determine two things. First, given the amount of increased austerity demanded by capitalists, the tripartite body negotiates the forms in which this austerity shall be imposed. Second, given a proportionately tiny compensating amount offered as token concessions, much bargaining ensues concerning the forms in which this shall be realized. Although the form is that of simple local co-determination, what is being settled is policy for the entire society, thus creating the larger, generalized controlled environment for the smaller controlled environment of co-determination and local community control. The effect on the mind ("No matter where I go, this remains the same") is obviously qualitatively different, more profound, than the effect of co-determination.
The most essential feature of corporativism is that it repudiates the existence of a working-class political interest. "Participation" in tripartite institutions by working-class organizations' representatives is the most hideous sort of counterrevolutionary crime.
5. Rock-Drug Counterculture
As the term "acid rock" properly implies, rock "music" in general converges upon the same kinds of music effects as the use of psychotropic drugs. It is a grotesque parody of music repudiating the cognitive aspect of musical composition in favor of sensual effects which are cumulatively desensitizing under prolonged repetitive exposure. Furthermore, the idea content of the rock presentation is acutely infantile.
Rock by itself would have only a marginally deleterious effect. When it is a reinforcing feature of a counterculture movement permeated with drug cults and polymorphic perversity ("communes," etc.) rock becomes a significant aspect of a brainwashing process. Any person who subjects himself or herself to intensive repeated exposure to the rock-drug counterculture's lumpenized environment is significantly impaired mentally - at least temporarily.
6. "Ecology Movement"
The "ecology movement" is principally a conditioning process aimed at inducing the youth and petit-bourgeois liberal strata generally to accept the billion-odd genocide as "regrettably necessary" in the interest of the "ecology" and "natural food." One is properly reminded of the book played by actor Sterling Hayden in the film, "Dr. Strangelove," who triggered the thermonuclear
destruction of the earth in defense of "our precious bodily fluids."
At the same time, in conjunction with the rock-drug counterculture, local community control, the cult of the CIA's Ralph Nader and the de-schooling cult of counterculture operative Ivan Illich et al., the "ecology movement's" preoccupation with the superstitious cult of the "natural" is the reinforcement of a paranoid hostility towards all science.
7. Superstition & Primitivism
The development of the Haitian dictatorship of "Papa Doc" Duvalier was assisted by Brigadier Dr. John Rawlings Rees and a fellow Rockefeller protégé, Dr. Nathan S. Kline, a leading Nazi Doctor in the field of brainwashing. The key contributions of these professionals included the promotion of drugs and voodoo as counterinsurgency weapons of social control of the dictatorship's subjects. The promotion of occultism generally, astrology, Tarot Cards, E.S.P., "meditation," and Rama-Khrishna cults, of primitive art and customs is a concentrated appeal to the most extreme infantile impulses.
The exact way in which "structural reforms" destroy sanity is uncovered by introducing the problem of paranoia.
The individual who is meaningfully described as paranoid acts toward the real world as if its experiences were merely symbols or disguises for the elements of a drama occurring within his unconscious processes. In the extreme case, the paranoid "knows" that the outer-world authority he seeks to propitiate is "really his fantasy-mother in disguise. Similarly, he may "know" that a rival is a disguised fantasy-sibling, the hated counter-authority (which he will even kill for fantasy-mother's sake) is his fantasy-father, and-so forth.
The relatively sane (average neurotic) experiences approximations of similar states only in dreams. Indeed, to be paranoid, the "outer world" is interpreted as if it were merely a dream-world. Reality - and the internal geometry of reality - is limited for him to the fantasy-family relationships of his unconscious processes.
In the extreme paranoid type, we have then these two symptomatic features of his mental behavior to consider. The primary feature is the superimposition of a sanitized term of infancy and early childhood family life upon the outer world. This treats the real world as merely an actor's disguise for the personalities of the unconscious fantasy-world. Psychologically, the paranoid slyly projects that he is committing acts in the real world, but his hysterical interpretation of that experience and the motivation of his acts is governed by the entirely different fantasy-world of his unconscious processes. He has, psychologically, fled from adult relationships and responsibilities into a grotesque parody of his memories of infancy and early childhood family relationships.
The associated feature of the paranoia is the characteristic geometry of the fantasy-world. It is a universe dominated by magic, and otherwise permeated with the crudest mechanical kinds of cause-effect connections. The mechanical causality exists as a mere essential background for the definition of witchcraft. The propitiatory act, the characteristic of professed rituals of magic generally, is the characteristic moral act within the infantile fantasy-world. Reduced to an essential principle, magic asserts that whatever simple cause-effect relations may exist in the world beyond the immediate family acreage, these cause-effect principles are really defeated by fantasy-mother's witchcraft, by propitiatory spells, secret handshakes, and whatnot of that sort.
The paranoid is a huddled child, hands pressed against its ears, shrieking "I can't hear you! You better stop talking! You don't exist for me!" Only the fantasy-mother-image and its immediate "community" of "extended family" fantasy relationships exist for this unfortunate person.
The fantasy-world is not a fixed memory of actual infancy and early childhood, although the characteristic "existential" problem of that period usually predominates. During childhood, adolescence and adulthood, the infantile fantasy-world of the unconscious processes is constantly being altered. Generally, everything that is experienced by the adult person is also experienced in a grotesque disguise by the infantile fantasy's self.
In addition to that, the child, adolescent and adult expend a considerable portion of their energies and time in various modes of fantasy-life, in which the unconscious world is being rearranged, elaborated in new layers and terms of associative reference. The fantasy-life of dreaming and day-dreaming are only one aspect of this. Dramatic entertainments, pornography, and adult sports recreations are almost exclusively directed to this same objective - of searching for new raw material and scenarios through which to make the unconscious fantasy-life more agreeable - credible - to the neurotic individual.
One of the most ordinary - and hideous - expressions of this process is the practice of encouraging girl-children to engage in doll playing. The victim - the girl playing with dolls - attributes types and associated characteristic roles to each of her dolls (usually with a few imaginary doll-figures "off stage" as part of the game).
The doll game is pure paranoia.
There are identities distributed: "You are...," "She is...," "He is...," or "You will be...," "He will be...," "This will be the one who...." Programmed instructions. To these identities are added complementary paranoid programmed instructions concerning relationships. These are typical of the semi-psychotic's propitiatory "If ... Then ..." variety. "If she does ________, then he will ________." And, other bi-conditional instructions. "She does not like him when he _________, as long as ________," and of the form, "She will like whoever this one likes," "She will avoid anything that one says is not good."
The same sort of paranoid games apply to most forms of popular dramatic entertainments: novels, movies, plays "soap operas." TV dramas, and - most emphatically - soap operas. The ordinary "formula" or "Plotto" sort of dramatic entertainment so popular on TV is a half-way case between paranoid-schizophrenia and the ordinary neurotic perception of events. Their value for the neurotic is both catharsis and, equally important, suggesting new fantasy-material to the observer. Literary, drama, and TV critics may be regarded as the Duncan Hines's of the masturbation circuits.
The best qualified CIA "covert operations" planning executives are to be found among hack paperback novelists and TV dramatists. The credulous neurotic projects reality onto the banal stage and TV screen "productions" because of his strong desire to believe that the combination of painted backgrounds, papiermache, costume, and montage has such reality. There is no way in which to conceal repeated "covert operations" unless the public wishes to be credulous. Give that public a fantasy of the sort to which it is susceptible, and no amount of mere fact will easily dissuade the majority of such persons from believing in whatever illusion the covert operation is designed to create. The application of the calculated deception of the successful hack novelist and dramatist to the so-called "documentary film" and "non-fiction exposé" is the connecting link between outright pornography-writing and the techniques for designing a CIA-type "covert operations" scenario.*
* If by chance, a covert operation is blown, the CIA's obvious remedy is to prompt one of its subsidiaries or sister-agencies to whip up a fresh exposé of the CIA! Give the credulous public a "believable" exposé scenario and the exposé provides a deeper cover than the original plot itself.
It is not accidental therefore that the leaders in all branches of psychological warfare have included leading dramatists, novelists and newspapermen. The accumulation of "organic" knowledge of what will effectively induce the public to deceive itself - the normal practice of the successful fiction-writer and journalist - represents a developed talent out of which both "white" and "black" propaganda can be shaped, and from which can be developed the scripts in which news media and "covert operations" specialists combine their roles to create an artificial reality for the gullible. All Anglo-American psychological warfare operates as the peddling of paranoia. The artisans of this craft often have no real knowledge of the mental processes on which they are operating; they merely have certain talents which have been shown to be workable.
All neurotics - including most so-called normal adults - obviously suffer significant degrees of paranoia. We have the evidence of weekend football, TV drama, "soap operas," large-circulation pornographic journals, and so forth which abundantly demonstrate that to be a fact. The immediate practical question is that of distinguishing between the concomitant paranoia within the mental life of the otherwise rational neurotic, and the state of paranoia in which the individual's sense of the "outer world" is essentially lost and replaced or effectively wholly dominated by fantasy-life. That distinction established, we then have to consider the means by which psychological warfare's Lewinite "structural reforms" cause the relatively sane, rational ordinary neurotic to be driven into a state of more or less acute paranoia.
Temporary difficulty of initially making a rigorous distinction appears once we recognize the extent to which normal capitalist life (in particular) seems to brainwash its victims. The characteristic form of female schizophrenia and homosexual tendencies in this culture is associated with the woman who identifies herself variously as a "doll" or as "my family's little girl." (Men who treat a woman as a "doll," or who similarly pressure women around them into assuming a "gal" or "little girl" identity are brainwashing women in effect.) The fetishism of adult sports, with its pseudo-goals and propitiation-associative form of "rules of the game," is analogous. American football is exceptionally ripe with extreme paranoid infantile material.
The solution to this problem appears to be the social ego-ideals associated with the Superego. These ego-ideals involve responsible conduct concerning "raising a family," which is an appropriate form of behavior in a rational society. They involve a sense of prestige (social identity) in connection with the competent exercise of a special skill or knowledge, which is also rational. To the extent that capitalist society is expanding the productive forces while introducing successive technological advances, the social roles it defines as available to its individual members must tend to be appropriate to that society's development, and hence to the development of the human species generally.
The criticism must then be conceded, that the ego-ideals are usually not rational in and of themselves. They have not been acquired by a rational process; they have been acquired largely in a neurotic way, through propitiating authority. Usually the scientific principle is not learned because it is rational, but because its assumed rationality is authoritatively established. Emile Durkheim
emphasized this specific point in his Elementary Forms of the Religious Life: although the principles of scientific knowledge may be susceptible of rational demonstration independent of authoritative opinion, the belief in those principles actually occurs in a manner analogous to the acceptance of religious belief.
This flaw in scientific knowledge as the knowledge of educated persons generally implies the proposition: How would one brainwash a scientist into repudiating the authority of existing scientific knowledge in favor of more primitive forms of belief? It would usually suffice to deny him employment as a scientist or engineer, to curtail the development of scientific research and development in his field, to blame "technology" for the "ecological crisis," and then to steer him into a new career in the study of "extra-sensory perception." He would not readily yield his conviction that past scientific achievements were achievements in knowledge; he could be induced to believe that science had gone "far enough in that direction," and that inquiry must now shift from mathematical physical research into "new areas" concerning the magical potentialities of the unconscious mind.
This enterprise would succeed among a demoralized majority of formerly passionately convinced scientists because, as Durkheim's observation properly suggests, the authority for the rationality of science had been established for them in a neurotic way. Lacking a direct, sensuous knowledge of the intrinsic (characteristic) humanistic merit of scientific inquiry and knowledge, they are vulnerable to the psychological warfare tactic of informing them that society no longer requires their accustomed sort of basic research activities. The same tactic would not succeed so easily with the scientist whose convictions were premised on the universal authority we have already identified in the preceding section.
In general, the flaw in the generally-accredited ego-ideals is that although most of them are rational to some degree, they are not primarily based on the authority of universal social rationality. Their primary authority has been neurotically determined. On this count, they are vulnerable to ridicule and weakening by brainwashing.
Fortunately, that is not the entirety of the Superego. Although the child may develop rational knowledge through the mediation of relatively infantile (propitiatory) connections to social practice, this progress activates other qualities of mental processes which are relatively independent of the Ego-unconscious relationship. Every sane person has experienced repeatedly in life a creative-insight experience which he would identify with "a light flashing on in the head." This experience, or a milder version of the same special quality of excitement has occurred at each point he or she has developed a fresh quality of insight into the solution of a problem or similar experiences. These insight-generating experiences are readily acknowledged to be the characteristic activity through which the expansion of the individual's intelligence and knowledge occurs.
Yet, we also easily recognize that this special aspect of mental activity does not lie within the scope of what we ordinarily regard as conscious thought. It appears to exist "just over the hill," making its contributions from just beyond the "corner of the eye." As we have shown elsewhere, this quality of preconsciousness is relatively transfinite with respect to the conscious contents of Ego-centered thought. We have also shown, in the same
locations, that this quality can be uniquely directly addressed and thus made the subject of deliberate investigations, in which case it becomes the quality of self-consciousness as identified by Hegel and Marx.
This active, or noetic, or self-conscious quality associated with the Freudian's Superego is the transfinite form of the Ego, as we have shown elsewhere. The problem of knowing the actual Ego in this elementary way is formally identical with the problem of inductive knowledge of the whole as such from the analysis of the elements which the whole subsumes. Since ordinary consciousness deals explicitly only with elements, it is impossible for the Ego itself to be simply a conscious experience of that same form. However, the creative aspect of the Ego's existence, those noetic qualities associated with the "light turning on," the preconscious qualities, can be discerned as objective with respect to society generally, and this perception of its distinct existence can be explicitly accomplished by methods we have developed in other locations. This discovery was not entirely original with us, since Hegel earlier developed the germ of this notion of self-consciousness, which we merely situated correctly in the form of explicit investigations.
The higher function of the Superego, as defined in these practical terms of reference, is not merely an instinctual quality of creative potential. It is not a quality which remains uniform in character and potential throughout. The more creative activity the individual experiences, especially during the early period of childhood, the more rapidly and fully these creative-insight powers develop. This development occurs not merely as an increase in the power of that agency, but has the practical form of an increase in the specific knowledge represented by that agency. The Superego functions as if it were a distinct personality with a mind and knowledge of its own. (As we noted earlier, the Superego, Ego, and unconscious ostensibly coexist within the typical person's mental processes as if they were distinct symbiotic entities.)
Thus, the socializing experience through which the individual develops specific socialized ego-ideals is also a process of education and development of the higher functions of the Superego: character development.
This fact appears as an important practical problem in psychoanalysis. The individual undergoing analysis frequently expresses the opinion. "I am basically rotten and worthless. Why do you continue to waste your valuable time on such a miserable creature?" There is a double significance to that sort of occasional outburst during analytical sessions. The statement usually includes a very large amount of dishonesty. The person is usually saying, in translation, "I don't wish to give up any more of my infantilism." Yet, he is also expressing a sincere if mistaken self-judgment. The facts upon which he premises that judgment are largely valid in themselves. He has discovered that many of his ego-ideals are neurotic and has discovered his activities permeated with the most wretched infantile (e.g., paranoid) motivations. The individual discovers that the persona he constructs for public view is largely a willful fraud, a false face. Take away all these faults, he asks, and what remains?
Despite that predicament, he is obviously the valuable person who first entered the psychoanalytical program. Despite all the neurotic and infantile materials
uncovered, there remains an essential character development which makes the "I" important, even essential for society generally. This quality of "I" is located essentially in the Superego.
Those of us who have looked into the eyes and minds of representative numbers and varieties of people from various nations and cultures (as this writer has been privileged to do) know that there are very few human beings, however otherwise profoundly afflicted with mental underdevelopment and psychopathologies, who do not represent an essentially lovable quality of character-development potential in respect of their Superego. Related to this fact, any achievement by an individual is a genuine achievement of that Superego, no matter what neurotic or infantile considerations may otherwise be involved in its execution. The superego is the "real you."
The qualitative or "geometric" feature of this higher function of the superego is in general agreement with the coherent universe for which mathematical physics, in particular, has striven, as we have described that problem. The universe is coherent, and the highest faculties of mind associated with the Superego seek and are in principled agreement with that coherence.
This same quality of the Superego is the feature which distinguishes the sane or merely neurotic individual from the semi-psychotic or psychotic. Induced psychosis, whether through unwitting circumstances or brainwashing, is the result of a breaking away of mental processes from the influence of these higher qualities of the Superego. This break occurs when the circumstances are able to induce the mind to accept the view that the universe of its experience is intrinsically incoherent, not susceptible of comprehension by the higher qualities of the Superego. The brainwasher's "You're nothing but mama's little boy" (the gist of all brainwashing), associated with a destruction of coherence of the outer world by a controlled irrational coercive environment, effectively rams the individual's sense of self back into the pit of his unconscious fantasy-life, inducing domination by pure paranoia.
A girl may be degraded by doll-playing (and surrogates for doll-playing) into becoming a prostitute-homosexual, or simply an adult semi-schizophrenic "doll" (as "idealized" by Playboy magazine). A man may be driven into the manic-depressive life of a "jock" mentality. However, as long as the higher qualities of the Superego exert even a modest active influence in giving coherence and, hence, rationality to life, the individual neurotic is essentially rational, not insane. Break that vital connection in even the less neurotic individual, and one evokes a psychotic or semi-psychotic infantile paranoid - who has lost the capacities for higher cognitive functions or judgment.
The intellectual behavior of psychotics and brainwash victims is characterized by lack of insight. The person who could formerly explicate the arguments for the derivation and appropriateness of a conception, after brainwashing is able to identify these ideas only in terms of labels and attitudes toward ideas merely as associated with such labels. The brainwash victim can usually paste strings composed of sentences and phrases together. The elements used to make up these strings are either parrot-like imitations of similar statements by relatively sane persons or editings of imitated statements which preserve the formal phrasing qualities of a rational statement. However, those elements are merely labels which are
strung together associatively; the element of cognitive judgment of idea-content is lacking. Also missing is any authentic accounting of the correlation between ideation of social relationships and genuine emotional colorings.
A similar symptom of such disassociation is the frequent poor coordination of bodily attitudes, gestures, recurring irrational grin, object-toying, with the implicit affective content of statements being made by or to the brainwash victim. It is usually important to watch the face and hands for this, with the attitudes and movements of the legs in a standing or sitting position also indicative. Tone of voice and, more significant but subtle, the prosodic qualities of intonation are related subjects of attention.
Musical cognitive powers are sometimes most useful areas for study of mental health. lf the victim had significant cognition of Beethoven, Bach, Mozart, and so forth prior to conditioning, the capacity for insight into the works of these composers will deteriorate during and after brainwashing. A significant test in this context would demand that the victim be at least a competent amateur performer (singer or instrumentalist), in which case the contrast in quality of insight in performance of pieces mastered prior to and those prepared during and after brainwashing conditioning would immediately reflect the deterioration of the mind.
Persons who have experienced more frequently the activity of creative insights know from that the intensely psychosomatic quality of creative activity. As we have developed the point elsewhere, the cognitive qualities of preconscious processes are the primary locus of what is properly termed the "fundamental emotion."
The person who has studied the evolution of Western music from the standpoint of composition of counterpoint, from the late Renaissance through the later works of Beethoven, can locate more immediately and deliberately the direct bearing of the creative aspects of musical composition upon the cognitive-emotional qualities of the preconscious processes. Even music lovers with less formal knowledge of the subject are able to approximately identify this connection.
It is demonstrated that this connection is mediated through the prosodic aspects of speech, from which music emerges as an abstraction, a concentration upon these specific cognitive-emotional features of preconscious processes. (Hence, Rock, an infantile pseudo-musical form, efficiently rejects and impairs the human potentialities of the victim.) From this specific line of investigation one quickly locates the connection to the coherence of bodily attitudes, gestures, and so forth.
Acute paranoid behavior has certain characteristic features which are encountered in a diluted or episodic form in merely neurotic individuals. The "re-enforcement" of those neurotic symptoms as part of the coercive controlled environment acts to facilitate the victim's slide downward into the infantilism they express.
The general symptomatic form of paranoid behavior is, as we have noted, the use of labels for ideas in place of the cognitive assessment of the ideas themselves. Exemplary of such infantile behavior among merely neurotic persons is the red-baiter's response to the "Communist" label. All of us experienced in political work have frequently encountered a situation in which individuals were rationally convinced of certain ideas until they were informed by visiting FBI agents that these were "Communist ideas." That label too frequently transforms an otherwise rational individual into a raging semi-psychotic red-baiting freak.
It would be academic infantilism to argue that a villager should not judge the proximity of a tiger by his fresh paw-print. One must respond to characteristic symptoms of properly-judged things. The red-baiter's insanity is the propitiatory-associative substitution of a mere label or fetish for rational judgment.
For example: "You may be right that only the development of fusion power can save humanity, but I still reject the idea since I don't want to live in a world dominated by technology." That argument is exhibiting acute infantilism and represents a clear-cut paranoiac episode.
The paranoid-schizoid form of the semi-psychotic's lack of cognitive-affective judgement is associated with typical fetishes, of which the most characteristic is the internalized fantasy-image of the "mother." Repetitive emphasis on "mother country," "mother tongue," "family," "feeling," "outsiders" and so forth as the primary values of social relationships and behavior is deliberate or unwitting effort to induce infantilism in the victims of whatever coercive controlled environments prevail.
The problem is not the relationship to the actual mother. Only in exceptional instances, in which the actual mother exerts acute psychopathic domination of the child, is a break in the relationship to be recommended. The problem is situated in the person's infantile dependency upon unconscious, fantasized surrogates for the actual mother, father, and so forth. If a positive, adult loving relationship can be established between the individual and the parents, this in itself can be a most powerful assistance to the individual's progress.
This does apply, however, a qualitative change in the relationship to the parents. The infantile person demands that the parents perform the role of meeting his or her demands, and permits the parents no other relationship. This sort of propitiatory-dependency relationship to the parents is a reflection of the unconscious infantile relationship to the fantasized parent-surrogate figures. Acting out that sort of pathetic propitiatory-dependency relationship to the opinions, prejudices, and so forth of the actual parents caters to and reinforces the infantilism. The former child who refuses to continue a dependency-relationship to the parents, and substitutes a loving adult relationship and sharing of adult responsibility for family needs and problems, is assisting, sensuously actualizing his own progress in mental health.*
The Psychotic Holocaust
Earlier, we stated that the recycling of labor which is characteristic of the Rockefeller Schachtian programs must converge upon a breakdown in the cognitive powers of even the essential cadres of skilled and semi-skilled labor. At that juncture, we indicated, the ability of all labor to maintain the integrity of production would virtually cease. The basis for that conclusion should have
* That does not remove the importance of the temporary breaks which must tend to occur between child and parents during adolescence or immediately afterward - a weaning break of relatively short duration. Through which the child manages to force an end to the practice of being the parent's mere "boy" or mere "little girl." That sort of experience is something parents and their children will probably tend to experience - and must survive - for some time to come. It will survive as long as parents cling neurotically to keeping their children in a propitiatory-dependency relationship and as long as children know no other device but acting-out revolt to end that possessive grip.
become clear during the preceding portions of this section. It is not necessary to add more here than a few observations which pin the point down.
The problem immediately under consideration is simplified if we momentarily overlook the quality of intelligence required by any lesser stage of human development than capitalist industrial expansion. Although the point is applicable to all societies, the role of the cognitive function in capitalist production is qualitatively more pronounced than in any preceding mode. Hence, the argument to be made is in its most accessible form if we presently limit the immediate issues of inquiry to the capitalist mode being considered.
Capitalism is the first form of society in which technological development is the explicitly determining feature of the realization of social surplus. The occurrence of the philosophical problem of "perfection," first in the crude form considered by the scholastics, and then in the mode exemplified by Ficino, expresses the prominence of progress in the most advanced manifestations of the social development in which the germs of capitalist society were created. The explicit emphasis on technological progress by the Tudor monarchs, from the accession of Henry VII through 1589, also expresses the same principle, which Marx termed universal labor.
This feature of capitalism, the emphasis upon technological development and (increasingly) upon the education of skilled and semi-skilled productive labor, is the active feature of capitalist development and expansion, without which capitalism could not have existed. The decisive subjective feature of the existence of society from capitalism onward is the capacity of society to produce individuals' creative innovations in technology and the corresponding increasing capacity of productive labor to mentally assimilate new qualities of technology for practice.
This is not merely a general issue. No one with first hand experience of the problems of introducing new techniques and products to production could overlook the decisive role performed by the individual worker's higher cognitive functions in the efficient assimilation of even relatively marginal innovations. It is too easy to point to what the worker has learned, and thus to draw attention away from the more essential thing. It is the worker's powers of insight which spell the difference between the success or failure of any otherwise competently engineered production design. Sometimes, the role of the worker's creative insight is obvious, as the suggestion-box contents suggest. Less conspicuous, but aggregately more essential are all the little-noticed things a worker does to make things work.
If one attempted to operate a modern industry's skilled and semi-skilled production with well-trained psychotics, that production would soon break down. The effect would be like the hypothetical case in which a mass of "Good Soldier Schweiks" had been put to work - aggregately - effectively destroying production by doing exactly as they had been taught and immediately instructed.
The famous French film, "A Nous la Liberte," could not have been produced by anyone familiar with the workings of advanced industrial production. A "1984" factory of obedient robot-like zombies can perform the sort of assembly and analogous operations which modern technology could do better completely by machine in any case. The core of production is represented by jobs in which the worker exercises judgment. Incur a breakdown in the cognitive powers of the workers employed in those
jobs, and that production fails to function. When that cadre-core of industry fails to function, the breakdown of the rest soon follows.
The previously-cited sort of "leaderless group" task-oriented production teams in which Tavistock fascist Eric Trist specializes is sufficient illustration of the problem involved.
These groups operate on the basis of an environment of Schachtian reduction in real-income levels and working conditions. With that coercive controlled environment as a context, the Tristian scheme offers teams of workers token reward incentives through which (it is argued) they will be able to make up for part of the lost standard income-rates by ingeniously speeding themselves up.
The model program of this sort has the following principal features, which may be slightly varied in secondary detail from case to case.
A selected section of the work-force is divided into small-group teams each of which will operate without direct supervision by a foreman. These teams will have authority to decide as "leaderless groups" on two matters of work policy: (1) How they shall increase their productive output; (2) What work standards they will accept. They are told that this gives them "local control" in co-determining the pace, routine and quality of work. These small-group teams are set into competition with one another, on the basis of new group-production-output standards involving a "token economy" incentive.
At the beginning there may or may not be a general reduction in standard income and working conditions from previous standards. That is entirely a tactical decision. The purpose of the Trist-type group is to function under a spiralling reduction in standard income and working conditions. Whether that wage-gouging policy is introduced before or after the introduction of "leaderless task-oriented groups" is, as we have stated, merely a tactical decision respecting the way the scheme is insinuated.
The groups are encouraged to evolve a "transactional therapy" form of intra-group relations. Since this will proceed under pressure of a coercive industrial environment the effects of the small-group functioning will be brainwashing.
In an environment of downward spiralling standard income and working-conditions, the group concentrates on discovering "trade-offs" for more production at the expense of working conditions, safety as such, and the physiological well-being of the group members. With declining employment in the industry - itself aggravated by the self-propelled speed-up of the leaderless groups - each increase in output increases the competition among groups for survival, by further increasing its output. The counter-rationality of the token-economy arrangement pushes the group toward psychosis.
The effect of this arrangement on the mind is worse than if similar intensification of labor were accomplished under pressure of Nazi kapos. The demand for "more, more, more" under straight coercion or a general conscious commitment to desperate sacrifice (in some broader social interest) is oppressive but not irrational. To the extent that the additional speedup is accomplished by a brainwashing mode of "fascism’s democratic face," the self-degradation of the arrangement becomes self-aggravating.
As the members of the leaderless task-oriented groups become psychotics, their capacity for intensification of labor increases beyond that possible for the most
vigorously-driven sane labor. The paranoid will sacrifice his own biological existence, willingly, for the sake of his paranoid's game. The race-horse running itself to death is the suitable parallel.
Before such a point of suicidal intensification is reached, the cognitive capacities of the worker are effectively destroyed.
Do the Trists and their ilk recognize this point and its significance? Scientifically, no. Their sort demonstrates beyond doubt from their writings that they have no conception of the creative processes, the location of these processes in preconscious processes, or the connection of those processes to resistance to psychosis. However, in cruder empirical respects, they already have ample warning of the consequences even in terms which they ought to comprehend.
There has been a relatively massive Anglo-American brainwashing of individuals and groups, accelerating since the beginning of this present decade. The Rockefeller specialists must have registered thousands of times what we have encountered in the score-odd cases of direct brainwashing we have studied closely. The brainwash victim is driven toward a cognitively-imbecilic paranoid state even in instances where only comparatively modest degrees of conditioning have been employed. Even in "soft" brainwashing, the perceptible cognitive capacities of the victim are significantly damaged.
It is sufficient to compare this with what we know and what the Rockefellers' available experts should know respecting the relevance of cognitive papers for production. Our projection of a breakdown of production by approximately the middle 1980's is an extremely conservative projection.
The issue is not the amount of intensification of labor involved. Human beings motivated to national sacrifice through mediation of higher cognitive functions are capable of sustaining collective personal suffering in such causes without catastrophic rates of psychotic breakdown. It is self-motivated destruction of the self for a perceptibly irrational sort of psychotic holocaust to which we refer. It will do the Rockefellers no good to point to China or elsewhere for a successful "model."
It must be conceded that individuals perform what are sometimes regarded as extraordinary acts of heroism under the influence of psychosis. The observation "He must have been crazy to..." is probably an accurate judgment in most such instances. Such sorts of psychotic's performance have no connection with the problem of sustained, recurring exercise of the higher cognitive functions.
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