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Coercive Psychology: Capitalism's Monster Science

by Carol Menzel


from the Feb-March 1974 issue of The Campaigner  (15 MB PDF file)
page numbers from source included to facilitate verification


Over the past few decades, the bourgeois science of mind, i.e. psychology and psychiatry, has been converted into the craft of mind destruction. Psychoanalysis and other legitimate, although generally limited, therapeutic approaches have given way to behavior-modifying pseudo-sciences in the name of aversion therapy, chemotherapy, electroconvulsive shock therapy - even psychosurgery.

This conversion of the mind sciences was truly


"shaped by war" - the war of mental genocide waged by the bourgeoisie against the working class and any threat of socialist revolution. From the great oil hoax to Nathan Kline-style chemotherapy and CIA-style brainwashing, the psychological sciences have followed the route initially outlined in 1945 by Dr. John Rawlings Rees, grand master of psywar counterinsurgency, in his book, The Shaping of Psychiatry by War. Here Rees calls for the development of psychiatric "shock troops"


of "well-selected," well-trained psychiatrists, who are free to move around and make contacts with the local situation in their particular area." [1]

Today these shock troops are deployed just about everywhere. They control entire prisons, hospitals, schools, and factories; they permeate every ghetto, Third-World and working-class community. Their aim is to destroy actual or potential creative minds, thus paving the way for a society that makes Nazi Germany and 1984 look like pleasure resorts. The shock troops of Rees, his protégés, and their Rockefeller creators will not rest until the masses are turned into slaves, more mindless than any in history, and selected slaves are turned into their proximate masters.

The bankruptcy and degeneracy of the "mind sciences" are no better vindicated than by the CIA/KGB'S aborted brainwashing attempts on Labor Committee members Konstantin George and Christopher White. There has never been, to our knowledge, a more thorough attempt to pervert and completely destroy a person's sense of self, a person's very humanity. Yet the brainwashing attempts on George and White are only a more sophisticated and deliberate use of the same mind-blunting, mind-destroying techniques that have already in varying degrees victimized hundreds of millions of the ghetto and working people worldwide.

We shall survey these pre-brainwashing and consummate brainwashing programs, and in the process expose the developers of brainwashing - the quack bourgeois psychologists and psychiatrists such as L.P. Pavlov, Kurt Lewin, B.F. Skinner, Arthur Janov, the racist H.J. Eysenck et al. Later we will develop an overview of the process which transformed psychology and the related sciences into the major counterinsurgent monster science which it is today.



The distinctions between classical psychiatry, behaviorism, biological psychiatry and the myriad of anti-psychoanalytic introspective approaches are practically nil. The intensity of debate among these and the various other schools, which began at the turn of the century and reached its peak in the 1920's, died with the depression. Drugs, conditioning, and introspective gimmickry are used pragmatically and eclectically, singularly or in combination, by the vast majority of present-day clinicians. There are very few purists left.

These so-called factions all boil down to one thing: charlatanry. Because they are based upon alienated,


thus generally false, premises about human behavior and development, they have at best only an accidental correspondence to any scientific notion of mental health.

As we present the array of techniques used in mental genocide, one basic point should be kept in mind: different techniques or combination of techniques have diverse utilities.

For example, you are not going to turn someone into a political agent through the use of psychosurgery; but then again with the same method you might produce a very good labor-intensive slave. Also, some of these techniques, such as group dynamics are not coercive in themselves. It's what one does with them. As Trotsky aptly put it: "... scientific medicine equips one with the possibility not only of curing the sick but of sending the healthy to meet their forefathers by the shortest route." [2]

The techniques used to induce a brainwashed or brainwashed-like state falls roughly into three methodological categories: biological methods, conditioning methods and anti-psychoanalytic introspective methods. For purposes of exposition, we will present the various techniques from the standpoint of these "factional" categories, indicating whenever possible, however, their eclectic and overlapping application in practice.

1. The Biological Approach

A patient screams, "I'm dying." [3] The doctor orders the patient to sing "God Bless America," and then describes how the patient becomes more disoriented and passive with each stab into his brain.

This is psychosurgery. It is inflicted on approximately one thousand victims per year in the U.S. But more than that, it is the essence of all the biologically-oriented techniques: the obliteration of human consciousness.

The primary techniques falling into this biological category, besides psychosurgery, include: chemotherapy, electro-convulsive therapy, and electrical stimulation of the brain. They are all premised on the notion that the etiology of man's behavior is to be sought in his 'neurophysiological equipment, his genetic endowment or his body fluids and chemistry. "Mental illness" or "deviant behavior" (aggressiveness, criminality, even political militancy), therefore, are somatic in nature and cause.

The conceit that man's psychological behavior is biologically determined goes back to antiquity. In fact, most of what we today call clinical therapy operates on a regressed notion of the fifth century B.C. - writings of Hippocrates and his later-day protege, Galen. In


sanguine or optimistic people, blood predominates; in the choleric or violent-tempered, yellow bile: in the melancholic person, black bile; and in the phlegmatic, phlegm.

Hegel, if he were around today, would characterize psychosurgery and electro-stimulation of the brain as "so much phrenology" - the 18th century idea that character is determined by the type of bumps on one's head. In fact, Hegel's witty dismissal of such pseudo- science in the Phenomenology of Mind should have ended the debate once and for all:

The skull of the murderer has - not this organ or sign - but this "bump." But this murderer has in addition a lot other properties, and other bumps too, and along with the bumps hollows as well. Bumps and hollows, there is room for selection! And again his murderous propensity can be referred to any bump or hollow, and this in turn to any mental quality; for the murderer is neither this abstraction of a murderer, nor does he have merely one protuberance and one depression. The observations offered on this point must therefore sound just about as sensible as those of the dealer about the rain at the annual fair, and of the housewife at her washing time. Dealer and housewife might as well make the observation that it always rains when neighbor so-and-so passes by, or when they have roast pork. From the point of view of observation a given charachteristic of mind is just as indifferent to a given formation of the skull as rain is indifferent to circumstances like these.... [4]

Psychosurgery is basically the technique of destroying tissue by lesions and ablations. The most popular of these treatments has been the prefrontal lobotomy, in which the patient's frontal lobes are partially separated from the thalamus, a part of the midbrain described as "involved in the experience of emotion." Newer operations attack the brain lower down in the


"limbic system."

Psychosurgery, its experimental origin dating back to the 1890's, was widely practiced beginning from the late 1930's, through the 1940's and into the early 1950's, when it was replaced almost entirely by the advent of tranquilizers. However, in the mid-1960's, there was a sudden resurrection not only of interest but of actual psychosurgical practice.

Many of these butchers attempt to pass off their mutilation by claiming that such surgery is limited to individuals with brain damage or epilepsy. Not so, found Dr. Peter Breggin, an anti-psychosurgery campaigner. In a well-documented study reviewing 100 papers and 1,000 recent psychosurgery cases in the U .S., Breggin determined that "none of the psychosurgeons were operating on individuals with brain disease and none were basing their work on the treatment of epilepsy." [5] A later investigation came up with only one psychosurgical team who even "claimed" to use such criteria.

Children as young as five who "demonstrate aggression and hostility" have been reduced to mindless vegetables; so have adolescents with criminal records. The favorite targets are the "psychopaths" - militants, protestors, revolutionaries, et al. In a 1967 letter published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Doctors Vernon Mark, Frank Ervin and William Sweet, all (at the time) of Boston, suggested in the aftermath of the 1967 Detroit riots that ghetto riot participants, whom they labeled as "violence-prone," should be operated upon to remove their brains' temporal lobe. They implied that 5 to 10 per cent of Americans have brain disease that may require treatment! Soon afterwards they were funded with at least


$100,000 by the CIA's Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA).

The effects? Norbert Wiener, mathematician and founder of cybernetics, has summed it up quite well. "It [lobotomy] has recently been having a certain vogue, probably not unconnected with the fact that it makes the custodial care of many patients much easier. Let me remark in passing that killing them makes their custodial care still easier." [6]

The psychosurgeons hypothesize that the brain is divided into regions with each region having a specific function - the thalmus controls emotions, the hypothalmus controls sex drive, appetite, etc. Thus, it is further reasoned, if you eliminate (surgically remove) or destroy any specific region, totally or partially, you then eliminate or reduce the specific response.

Rubbish! Liken this to the physiology of the human body. Cut out or mutilate any specific organ, say the heart or the kidneys. What happens? The person dies. The brain is part of, and a microcosm of, the integrated functioning of the body as a whole.

Mutilate one region or area of the brain and you have destroyed the integrated functioning of the brain as a whole ... you have obliterated the physiological appropriateness of the brain for human consciousness.

Electrical Stimulation of the Brain: "Electrical stimulation of the brain can put human beings through the paces from fear, anxiety, rage, aggression, pain, alertness, volubility and euphoria to near-orgasm. ESB prevails over free will. It is a foot in the door of an infinitely bigger wor1d." [7]

Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) was developed as a "more conservative treatment" than lobotomy. The lobotomy was under attack by many of the "experts" because "it often produced concomitant undesirable alterations of personality." [8] ESB is far from being more conservative; it is simply more sophisticated.

This is how it works. Fine steel or platinum electrodes are surgically implanted into the brain in selected sites. A single external socket can pass current to two dozen or more electrode tips, eliciting, so claim its proponents, a reaction specific to the part of the brain stimulated. According to its main advocate, Dr. Jose Delgado, "it may delay a heartbeat, move a finger, bring a word to memory, or set a determined behavioral tone." [9]

In the case of the lower animals - say a cat - radio stimulated strapped to the back transmit current to the electrodes implanted in the cat's brain. The current is battery-activated yards away by radio. Another variety, the programmed stimulator, delivers stimulation ac-


cording to a prearranged schedule. In either case, a jolt of current to one electrode tip will turn a serene cat into an enraged clawing beast; another jolt might cause the cat to copulate until exhaustion.

With humans, the procedure is the same, but the terminal sockets are gathered into a small box located on the outside of the skull or completely hidden under the skin. Says Delgado: "Some women have shown their feminine adaptability by wearing attractive hats or wigs to conceal their electrical headgear... " [10]

ESB is premised upon Skinnerian notions of reward and punishment. Unsystematic analysis of the distribution of pleasurable areas in the rat shows that 60 per cent of the brain is neutral, 35 per cent is rewarding and only 5 per cent may elicit punishing effects." [11] When applied to human subjects, this concept becomes an Orwellian nightmare:

... one man suffering from nacrolepsia was given a small stimulator and a built-in counter that recorded the number of times he voluntarily stimulated each of several selected points in his brain. During a period of 17 weeks the highest score was recorded from one point in tie septal region and the patient declared that pushing this particular button made him feel good, as if he were building up to a sexual climax, although he was not able to reach the end-point, or orgasm, and often felt impatient and anxious.... [12]

And another:

... One case was V.P., a 36-year-old woman with a long history of epileptic attacks that could not be controlled by medication. Electrodes were implanted in her right temporal lobe and upon stimulation ... the patient reported a pleasant tingling sensation in the left side of her body. She giggled and made funny comments, stating that she enjoyed the sensation very much Repetition of these stimulations made the patient more communicative and flirtatious, and she ended by openly expressing her desire to marry the therapist. [13]

Generally, ESB researchers will claim that intracranial stimulation is being conducted for "medical purposes" such as "gaining a better understanding of brain functions," or alleviating severe behavioral impairments." Of course well-placed kilovolts have nothing in common with curing such ailments as epilepsy, impotency, frigidity, hyperactivity, etc.* ESB's only purpose is to produce robots that "can be induced to flex a limb, to reject food, or to feel emotional excitement."

Fascist Delgado envisions a "psychocivilized society"


* It is conceivable, although scientifically untested at present, that ESB may have some useful prosthetic functions such as empirically stimulating, in the case of blindness, the optic area of the brain.



for his "future man." To achieve, as he puts it, "The control of domestic and international violence in the political sphere" [15], Delgado is well endowed by the U.S. Public Health Service, the Office of Naval Research and the U.S. Air Force.

Nor is Delgado alone in his campaign to physically control the mind. One colleague, Dr. Robert G. Heath, Chairman and Professor of the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology at Tulane University in New Orleans, boasts of holding the record for implanting 125 electrodes at one time in one brain. His specialties are primarily homosexuals and frigid women. [16]

ESB is not only the technology of fascism; it also reflects its epistemological basis. To advocates of ESB, the brain is simply a "material entity located inside the skull which may be inspected, touched, weighed and - measured. It is composed of chemicals, enzymes, and humors which may be analyzed. Its structure is characterized by neurons, pathways, and synapses which may be examined directly when they are properly magnified." [17]

Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy: Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) was the first coercive psychiatric technique applied on a massive scale. Closer to pure torture than the other techniques, its use was pioneered by the Kaiser's Army during World War I - employed as a disciplinary procedure for terrifying and torturing combat fatigue cases back into the trenches. (Chemical shocking agents were used even earlier - perhaps as early as the eighteenth century.) From the late 1930's through the mid-1950's, ECT was the dominant


treatment for schizophrenia and depression. Like lobotomy, it almost disappeared as a mode of treatment in the U.S. replaced by the anti-depressant drugs in the mid-1950's, only to return again some ten years later in the mid-1960's to be used concurrently with other modes of "therapy."

The treatment consists of sending an electric current through the front part of the patient's head, resulting in unconsciousness and convulsions.

The patient often awakes terrified, with wrenched muscles, broken bones, or damaged brain tissue. ECT'S most universal effect is loss of memory and a disorientation in time and space. It is these effects which have made ECT an important technique to employ in functional brainwashing.

In Detroit, ECT is being used to "erase" undesirable elements of an individual's personality so that the person can be "reprogrammed" to function in a more desirable manner. The director of Detroit's brainwashing center, the Institute of Psychosynthesis, is Dr. Tien, a graduate of the University of Michigan Medical School. Tien is quite articulate about the basic principles of brainwashing: "It is not the shock that's important, it's like erasing a blackboard. You're not interested in the erasure itself, you're interested in what you can do after you erase." [18]

Dr. Tien recommends ECT for any and every kind of psychiatric disorder, including schizophrenia, sexual disorders, alcoholism and even obesity. He also recommends shock treatment for "normal" individuals who want to function at a higher level. In all cases, he


uses ECT as a conditioning technique for inducing a pseudo-identity, a new persona.

Tien premises his brainwashing on the idea that ECT temporarily reduces an individual to the mental state of a baby, erasing neurotic ideas and memories that can be replaced with "healthy" ones. He deliberately stimulates unpleasant memories immediately prior to the shock treatment, so that they can be "erased." Then with baby bottles, chocolate milk (adults prefer it to white milk, he finds) and cuddling by spouse or parent, he makes the individual receptive to "new ideas."

One of Tien's videotaped case histories, for example, documents the transformation of a woman called "Laura," who saved her marriage by becoming a "Susan." The full transformation required 20 shock treatments, administered over a period of several months. A videotape film, one of hundreds In Tien's library, recorded one of those sessions:

(Laura is on a treatment table in St. Lawrence Hospital, attended by Tien and a nurse who places the electrodes that conned Laura to the shock treatment machine.)

TIEN: Laura, l want you to think about yourself as Laura (when you were a child). What got you so upset that you had to run away from home?

LAURA: My grandmother. I had to live with her. She used to beat me and she put me in an orphanage.

TIEN: Before that, what did she do? Remember what you told me in therapy? She made you sit in the doghouse in the yard and finally made you take the dog you loved to the dog pound to be destroyed. "What's upsetting you, Laura?

LAURA: Nothing I can't remember.

TIEN: No? You mean the bad times were so bad you got all mixed up? So now you want your husband to divorce you and take your son away?

LAURA: No! You're mixing me up. I never wanted that. I want the divorce and I want my son with me.

TIEN: Yes, it is all mixed up, isn't it? Do you remember running away? Just like your father ran away? Just like your mother ran away, leaving you with your grandmother? Remember running away from the orphanage? Remember running away from the foster home? Is it all coming back? You are so desperate sometimes, and you feel so depressed, Laura. You can't put up with this any more. And now you want to run away from Tom (husband).

(A rubber mouth guard is inserted in Laura's mouth, and Dr. Tien administers the electric shock. Laura is wheeled into an adjoining treatment room where Tom is waiting. The nurse hands Tom a baby bottle filled with chocolate milk.)

TIEN: Susan, your husband is here. (Laura/Susan opens her eyes and looks submissively at Tom, who cuddles her in his arms and attempts to feed her from the baby bottle.)

TOM: Come on Susan, drink your milk.

SUSAN (childishly): I don't wan' it.

TOM: It's good for you. You're a good girl, aren't you?


(Susan begins to drink from the bottle. Like all of Tien's patients, she has not eaten for five to six hours prior to shock therapy.)

TIEN: Have you ever been a bad girl, Susan? SUSAN: Yeah. Sure.

TOM: No. Susan has never been bad.

TIEN: Right, Tom. It's Laura who was bad, not Susan.

TOM: No. Susan has never been bad.

TIEN: Right, Tom. It's Laura who was bad, not Susan.

TOM: Susan's a good girl.

TIEN: Tell me, Susan, did your grandmother ever make you get in a doghouse?

SUSAN: W-h-a?

TOM: No. Susan's grandmother never did that. Laura's grandmother did it.

TIEN: You're a new person now. Have you ever been in an orphanage?

SUSAN: No, never.

It is not the ECT itself that brainwashes. Laura did not acquire the persona of "Susan" because of shock therapy per se. In fact, while Tien sees ECT as desirable for "psychosynthesis," he does not insist that it is mandatory. The new persona is acquired by submitting to acts of self-degradation - regression to infancy; becoming a work slave; eating one's excrement, etc. - in the face of pain - i. e. to halt the pain as B.F. Skinner puts it in his explanation of why "aversive conditioning" works better than mere punishment or threats.

The painful stimuli could be physical - ECT, beatings, starvation, etc., or emotional - playing upon fears or neuroses. This is demonstrated in a simpler form by a couple of Vietnamese case studies published recently in Science News:

Firstly: Chronic male patients (mostly schizophrenic) were offered freedoms if they proved they could work. Of 130, only 10 volunteered to work. The rest were told they needed treatment and were given electroconvulsive shock. After a few treatments, most of the men decided to work. [20]

Secondly: A similar experiment was then tried on 130 women. Even after each had received 20 treatments, only 15 were willing to work. Shock treatments were discontinued and food was withheld for periods of up to three days. The patients were eventually cured and went to work tending crops for the Green Berets. [21]

The point is clear: the mental patients were coerced into acquiring a slave's persona in order to escape the pain.

Chemotherapy: Drugs are the "humanitarian's" psychosurgery. They are ESB and ECT all wrapped in one package. Drugs do the same thing - reduce or abort mental functioning - and they are cheaper, more efficient, and better geared to turning people into "functioning slaves" rather than incapacitated vegetables.


Today over 80 per cent of all psychiatrists as well as most other medical doctors, liberally prescribe psychotropic drugs to at least 40 million individuals in the U.S. The widespread use of psychopharmaceuticals has begun to wipe out the corridors of most mental hospitals - not as any humanitarian progress, but merely to dump long-institutionalized doped-up mental patients onto the street. The prescription blank has almost replaced the psychoanalytic interview, or any interview for that matter; everyone from school children to the Third World masses are its target; and most significantly, chemotherapy has become a key aspect of counterinsurgency.

The array of drugs available or on the drawing board is staggering. There are drugs to depress and drugs to energize; drugs that increase sleep and drugs which reduce sleep; drugs which act as intoxicants and hallucinogens. There are drugs which regulate sexual response, control affect and aggression, and increase or decrease reactivity. Other drugs prolong or shorten memory or induce or prevent learning. Some psychiatrists claim that there are futuristic drugs which could produce or discontinue transference, provoke or relieve guilt, foster or terminate mothering behavior, shorten or extend experienced time. and create conditions of novelty or familiarity.

The widespread use of psychopharmaceuticals came about in the early 1950's through a concerted effort by a certain stratum of the bourgeoisie, led by the Rockefellers, to turn around the menacing growth in the numbers of patients in public mental hospitals. While tranquilizers and narcotics had existed for quite some


time, it was not until reserpine and chloropromazine, both depressants, were developed in 1952 that the first modern behavior-controlling drugs hit the market. By 1960, psychotropic drugs had become the third most common class of drugs dispensed by the medical profession.

Almost immediately it became clear that the potential of drugs far exceeded their mere usefulness in promoting mental-hospital austerity. The government, the pharmaceutical companies, and certain parts of the medical profession realized the drugs far-reaching potential: the power of drugs to control behavior, to change moods ... the usefulness of drugs in blunting the agony of a crumbling capitalist society ... the ability of drugs to "cool off" angry militants in the prisons ... all this crystallized.

Immediately the machinery got set up. The same pharmaceutical companies who barefacedly induced scurvy or injected live cancer cells into prisoners quickly expanded their operations to include research, production, and promotion of behavior-and mind-controlling drugs. But this was insufficient.

In 1956, as a result of an Act of Congress, a Psychopharmacology Research Branch (PRB) was established under the National Institute of Mental Health. The Center was designed to develop programs of support for both clinical and pre-clinical research, and facilitate an exchange of information in psychopharmacology. Immediately the federal government, through the PRB, joined with the private pharmaceutical industry in expediting and expanding the thousands of behavior-controlling drug experiments against prisoners, mental patients, ghetto dwellers, et at.

The scoundrel above all others who stands out in this campaign is a little-known but influential individual, Nathan S. Kline. It was Dr. Kline who developed reserpine, who blueprinted the mental-hospital austerity campaign, who served as one of the leading promoters of the PRB, and who has continued to act as a leading front for the government and drug companies' wide-scale counter-insurgency efforts for at least twenty years.

Kline, Director of Research since 1952 at Rockland State Hospital, near New York City, has been a major mastermind of aborting revolution in the Third World with his own calculated mixture of voodoo, chemotherapy, and computers.

Working through his front organization, the lnternational Committee Against Mental Illness (ICAMI), of which he is "president," Kline has developed hundreds of counter-insurgent mental health clinics in no less than twenty undeveloped countries, including ln-


donesia, Liberia, Columbia, Nepal, Haiti, Iran, Nigeria, 'Tanzania, Pakistan, Sarawak, Jamaica, Kuwait, Israel, and Yugoslavia.

In Haiti, for example, Kline in 1958, during the ebb of a Communist uprising, set up that unfortunate country's only mental health clinic, linking drugs with voodoo, as the basic "therapeutic treatment." One year later, in 1959, Kline received the highest civilian award, the Legion of Honor and Merit, from Papa Doc Duvalier, at the time Duvalier was consolidating his bloody dictatorship. Kline "settled" on Haiti because he recognized that it was "virtually impossible to set up a psychiatric service in the United States based upon this principle [of chemotherapy], since it was so clearly heretical." [23] In Haiti, Kline continued, "no one knew that such an approach was incorrect.... So it worked." [24]

Kline's voluminous writings (his bibliography lists nearly 400 books, articles, etc.) point to the practical significance of chemotherapy: slave labor. In the fall of 1971 the ICAMI, under a grant from a drug manufacturer, set up the first international meeting on "Productive Participation of Psychiatric Patients" in Helsinki. Discussing the outcome of the conference, Kline writes: "It was clearly recognized that the use of appropriate psychopharmaceuticals would play a significant role in the social and work rehabilitative process." [25]

Kline is well aware that the time has come for his Third World efforts to be brought home. "These facts are anything but irrelevant for the United States of America today" [26], he writes. The U.S. program of this fascist internationalist includes the importation of voodoo as a "therapeutic tool" and the mass dispersal of lithium, a deadly mood changer, through the water supply.

For such "novelties" Kline's funding reads like a Who's Who of the pharmaceutical companies. Included are Alcoa, Allied Chemical, Armour, CIBA-GEIGY, Hoffman-LaRoche, Knoll, Eli Lilly, Merck, Pfizer, Sandoz, Schering, Searle, Smith, Kline and French, Wallance and Wyeth. Four drug firms alone have offered over a half a million dollars' worth of psychopharmaceuticals. Kline is also heavily endowed by the U.S. government - particularly NIMH.

Kline's goals are well on their way to being met. The widespread use or drugs throughout institutions, particularly prisons, points to this.

A petition addressed to the California Senate Committee on Penal Institutions by La Raza Unida, a Chicano organization representing prisoners confined in the California Men's Colony, describes the situation: "The simple fact that a number of prisoners are walking


the yard in this institution like somnambulists, robots, and vegetables as a result of the drug [Prolixin] should be reason enough to make people apprehensive as to the effect it is having. That no prisoner feels safe because he never knows when he will become a candidate for said drug is another factor in producing tension in this institution." [27]

The most commonly used drugs in prisons are lithium and prolixin. Lithium is the favorite for what is referred to as the "emotionally unstable aggressive personality." An NIMH-supported experiment, "The Long-Term Use of Lithium in Aggressive Prisoners," conducted at the Vacaville, California Medical Facility produced the following results. Of 27 subjects on lithium, several stopped because they expressed the fear that if they stayed on lithium they would be unable to defend themselves, or be emasculated; there was precipitation of psychosis in two individuals; there was activation of ulcers in two individuals and leukocytosis in one; many of the subjects suffered from nausea, vomiting, and tremor." [28]

Prolixin, jocularly referred to as the "liquid straight jacket," is also used at Vacaville, as well as being dispersed by the LEAA to Philadelphia's youth gangs. It is a powerful tranquilizer derived from phenothiazine, which, if given in large doses, produces dangerous and often irreversible side effects. These include "the induction of a 'catatonic-like state,' nausea, loss of appetite, headache. constipation, blurred vision, glaucoma, bladder paralysis, impotency, liver damage, hypotension severe enough to cause fatal cardiac arrest, and cerebral edema." [29]

Young children are another favored target. At least 300,000 elementary-school-age children are now hooked on drugs. The pushers are over-anxious parents, despairing teachers, and sadistic psychologists and psychiatrists. These children, some as young as three years old, are said to be suffering from "minimal brain dysfuntion (MBD) or "hyperactivity."

While the medical profession is quick to diagnose MBD, it becomes completely bewildered when it attempts to explain it. "These children are of normal or above normal intelligence, but they seem to have a tiny physiological defect somewhere in the brain that prevents them from mastering such crucial skills as reading, writing or arithmetic." [30] Where? "Just somewhere," the doctor will feebly reply. The real question is who suffers from brain damage? It isn't the children.

The class of drugs most generally inflicted on such children are the amphetamines. One of the most widely used drugs is Ritalin, which accretes $13 million profits


to CIBA. Another drug recently being pushed is the old favorite, lithium. No matter which drug is used, the effect is the same: mind destruction. The following case studies exemplify this:

In Garden City, Michigan, a teacher persuaded a father to get a physician to prescribe Ritalin to calm his restless six-year-old daughter Joanie. The drug made her so withdrawn that she would sometimes sit for hours doing nothing. "One day I got panicky," her father said. "I had just said her name softly, and she started sobbing uncontrollably." A battery of tests disclosed that Joanie was perfectly healthy. What she needed was drill in basic reading, not drugs. [31]

In Palo Alto, California, nine-year-old Kent's teacher and the school psychologist talked his parents into administering drugs to control the boy's mischievous and belligerent behavior. The amphetamines, however, only made Kent depressed. Frequently he complained of feeling persecuted by other children, and cried himself to sleep. His parents took him to a psychiatrist, who concluded that all the boy needed was more activity to use up his frenetic energy. [32]

Doping up children-numbing their nervous and endocrine system, even killing them altogether is of little concern to capitalists in this era of deschooling. For like the peasant or worker in Haiti or Indonesia, a child with a creative mind is now seen as an albatross.


2. Conditioning Methods: Behavior Therapy

Behaviorism as a clinical approach traces its roots back to the second and third decades of this century, when interest was aroused in the application or the principles of conditioning to the treatment of behavior disorders. Behavior therapy as it is currently practiced is simply the homogenization of Watson's S-R's and Pavlov's drooling dogs - Skinnerism is its oozing



Behaviorism, in slightly varying forms, has sprung from the Soviet Union, the U.S., England, and South Africa. In the U.S., behaviorism was officially launched as a faction in 1913 when John Watson began his vigorous campaign against "introspectionism" (Freudianism) on behalf of what he called an "objective psychology." By the 1940's Watson's mindless objectivism had taken over American psychology.

Its near-complete hegemony is especially apparent within academic institutions. University psychology departments have for years turned out students schooled almost exclusively in behaviorist traditions. Psychiatric departments within medical colleges have nervously tried to deny its existence; most, to date, have never officially endorsed its theory or practice. But classical psychiatry, the syllabus medical schools continue to teach, is nothing more than a haphazard blend of mainly biological psychiatry and behaviorism, with a little misunderstood Freudian psychology thrown in as a cover. How does psychiatry endorse in practice that which it purportedly denies in theory? The more honest psychiatrist would answer: "Why, it works."

And to a certain extent it does work - in the traditions of any coercive psychological approach. At minimum it brings about certain "behavioral" or "attitudinal" changes, more often than not inducing psychosis. Pavlovian psychology in particular, if used deliberately and consciously, as in cases of prisoners of war brainwashed by the Chinese Communists in North Korea, and more recently the CIA/KGB'S brainwashing of White and George, becomes an extremely potent weapon.

The approaches based upon conditioning are many in name: "systematic desensitization, "implosive


therapy," "operant conditioning," "behavior shaping," "aversion therapy," "action therapy," "token economy," etc. We shall select two for in depth investigatlon: one, the token economy is of the Skinnerian ilk and tends to be a pre-brainwashing program; the other, aversion therapy, is a product of "Pavlovian" therapy and lies at the core of the induced brainwashed state.

The Token Economy: The token economy is just another name for Skinner's contingency management programs. As Skinner's Beyond Freedom and Dignity well demonstrated, the token economy establishes the social relations of Rockefeller's 1984 fascist society. Whole institutions - schools, hospitals, prisons, etc. - become converted into massive concentration camps, in which the inhabitants are reduced to raw bestiality, clamoring for "tokens" that can be exchanged for "rewards" such as a bath or a paint-by-numbers set.

In Philadelphia's Follow-Through Program, primary-school-aged children from the ghetto are being turned into virtual caged rats, keeping their mouths shut, staying in their seats, and withstanding the drudgery of Baraka-style drill and grill so they can "exchange" their tokens for a coloring book. The Behavioral Research project in Tucson, Arizona utilized community-trained teachers, parents and other adults in the child's natural environment to use "reinforcers" to modify "delinquent" or "predelinquent" behavior such as stealing, property destruction, and truancy. An intervention plan was designed for each child and the child was given notes, points, or a mark on a chart which could be exchanged later for primary "reinforcers." Behavior such as prompt arrival at school or obedience to instructions was reinforced, as well as periods in which a particular undesirable behavior did not occur. [33]

One of the classics among token economies is the project CASE II (Contingencies Applicable for Special Education), conducted at the National Training School for Boys (at the time in Washington, D.C.). This project was designed for "delinquent" boys who could obtain points for "successfully" completing specified amounts of educational material. It is described, as follows:

These boys lived in a specially constructed environment on the school grounds which for the first three to five days included a small but attractive private room and exceptionally good meals. Following this, points had to be earned by the boy in order to pay for his private room and good meals. In addition, he could use these points, sometimes converted into tokens or small amounts of money, to pay for such things as phone calls, or articles from a mail-order catalog. Conversely, if a student did not successfully complete his educational tasks, he was known as a relief student and would lose his private room and would have to have his meals served on a metal tray.


after the other students had eaten. Also, be would not be able to wear street clothing, attend movies, or take trips outside. [34]

The most feared and hated Skinnerian program is that of Project START (Special Treatment and Rehabilitative Training) at the Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri.* Project START is geared to promoting "behavioral and attitudinal change in that element of the prison institutional population which has chronically demonstrated inability to effectuate adherence to established regulations." [35]

In a letter to the United Nations on July 5, 1972, the Prisoners Rights Committee, a group of inmates at Marion Federal Prison asked the United Nations Economic and Social Council to investigate their charges that inmates who refused to cooperate with the START scheme were first tranquilized and then tied naked to a toilet for several days. If they then cooperated, they were placed in completely empty cages until continued cooperation would win the prisoner a bed." [36] One inmate, Charles Alfano, attempted suicide on June 29, 1972, some hours after he was notified that he was to be moved to the START unit. He expired the next morning. +

Why is it that this program brought charges of brainwashing from inmates, stirred up hunger strikes, and was so widely feared by prisoners throughout the country? Project START's token economy is geared to the prisoner who is "aggressive, manipulative, and resistive to authority." Any prison militant or revolutionary is


* In a New York Times article of Feb. 7, 1974 entitled "U.S. Ends Project on Jail lnmates," it was announced that the Federal Bureau of Prisons had decided to "dismantle" Project START. While the bureau claimed that its decision was "economic," the real reasons are as follows: (1) it has been the focus of protest demonstrations both inside and outside the prison; (2) Arpiar G. Saunders, Jr., National Prison Project of the ACLU Foundation and collaborator with the NCLC, represented START inmates in Federal litigation; (3) the government was well aware of the revolutionary organizing that was being launched in the nation's prisons by the NCLC around "Operation Nuremburg." In addition, while the ruling was significant, no such action can be considered "victorious" until all behavior modification programs have been terminated. The bureau had announced earlier that the Federal Center for Correctional Research, soon to be opened in Butler, North Carolina would be replacing, through centralization, other existing behavior modification programs throughout the Northeast. Finally. it appears that the Bureau does not want this case to reach the point of constitutional ruling; if START is declared unconstitutional all other behavior modification programs would stand in jeopardy.

+ Verification of his death and details may be obtained from the office of U.S. Senator Edward Brooke.



involuntarily sent to a program like START to be reduced to a whimpering animal. *

The vehicle for START's behavior modification is a "status system" in which obedient prisoners who perform certain duties satisfactorily are given increased privileges as reward. The prisoners begin at Level I in which they are kept in solitary confinement for a minimum of three weeks. If at the end of that period an individual prisoner received a perfect rating for cooperation and a satisfactory rating for such things as grooming and room neatness, he is promoted to Level II. At Level II he is given further privileges and after six months, again with a perfect record, he can be promoted to the final stage, Level III. The reward for Level III? He is allowed to become a full-time work slave. Throughout the program accumulated points can be turned into tokens which are then exchanged for such "privileges" as a mirror, a model kit (planes, cars, ships, etc.), or a photograph of oneself. All of this is combined with the use of psychopharmaceuticals, and the "leaderless group" session. [37]

What are the "choices" for the inmates of START, or, as Skinner would say, the "structure of contingencies?" Either become a huckster or be reduced to psychosis. Both routes are nothing less than an attempt to force human beings to relinquish control over their own thoughts. The psyche, subjected to degradation, becomes a prisoner of the body as a defense. The militant prisoner is reduced to a whining beast - doing the "right" tricks for his master; or he becomes a clawing beast, imprisoned within his own psychosis.

Such Skinnerian programs are beyond the pilot project stage. They have invaded entire institutions; they are increasingly being aimed against large segments of the working class. Operant conditioning has been imposed on welfare recipients - the most notorious form being the "brownie point" system in New York City. + B.F. Skinner has proposed the return of the piece-work pay scale as a way to turn factories into one giant token economy. In Baltimore, Maryland, the city's sanitation workers are subjected to a reverse form of the token economy: after acquiring a set number of points - for such items as absenteeism (even excused), lateness. low productivity - they are forced off the job for a few days.


* While behavior modification did not get its legal start in the federal prisons until 1968, the foundation had been laid some years earlier. At a 1962 seminar of prison wardens and seven psychologists, chaired by James V. Bennett, then director of the U.S. Bureau of Prisons one psychiatrist, Dr. Edgar H. Schein, announced that there must be studies done on the application of Korean brainwashing techniques in American prison communities. This, it was stated would be the best way of stopping Muslim organizing in the prison.



without pay. lf they received an additional number of points, they are forced off for a week; once they acquire 100 points they are fired!

Aversion Therapy: There is one basic and important difference between Skinnerian token-economy-type schemes and "Pavlovian" aversion techniques: while to the Skinnerian the mind never existed in the first place, to the "Pavlovian" the mind is something to manipulate and destroy. ++ Within this lies their affinity - men as mindless beasts, whether they began that way or ended up that way - which makes them both partners in mental genocide. But because the "Pavlovian" takes into perverted account the human mind, it lends itself as even a more powerful weapon of brainwashing.

Aversion therapy is "Pavlovian" in its most naked form. It is premised on the brutal idea that pain and fear bring about the desired modifications of behavior. The behaviorists call this counterconditioning - we call it torture.

There are a number of cardinal rules in aversion therapy: first define the problem precisely; next calculate a specific way to attack it; then do what you planned; finally, see how it works. lf the person is still able to think or display any human emotion, you have failed. Try again.

Aversion therapists are armed with certain weapons. These include electric shock and chemicals - some of which produce nausea or even traumatic respiratory paralysis - and even noise (up to 135 decibels an intensity that can incur deafness). Actually, anything that can cause physiological or psychological pain - i.e. create an "aversion" - such as imprisonment, disapproval, isolation, fines, and criticism, could be substituted.

The goal of aversion therapy is to discover the breaking point in human beings. Pavlov describes this as the "hypnoidal state of inhibitory brain activity" - the point at which the brain stops computing critically the impressions being received. This is the point when psychosis is imminent or actually occurring. William Sargant, a British psychiatrist, a cohort of John Rawlings Rees, and a prominent brainwasher, explains this process in his book, The Battle for the Mind - A


+ The brownie point system (formally called "Incentive Independence"), while it never formally got off the ground has in many places received de facto implementation. In its initial form a welfare recipient's grant was reduced substantially and had to be earned back by meeting specified requirements. In a modified form, the recipient's grant was reduced if the requirements were not met.

++ See Skinner's new book, "About behaviorism," (May, 1974), for his efforts to catch up with aversive techniques. The book was funded by NIMH.



Physiology of Conversion and Brainwashing. Sargant describes Pavlov's experimental findings about the breaking down of dogs - commenting that "it has been proved to be just the same in man." [38] He writes:

... Very strong dogs, who could not be broken down by the conflict situations and excitement artificially created for them, might only break after they had later been physically debilitated, or had had their metabolism altered in other ways and then had the same disturbing stimuli reapplied.... There was a final stress which could disrupt all the animal's previous conditioning, break up implanted patterns of behavior, and so allow new ones more easily to be put in their place. This was a state of great excitement and fear, carried even beyond the point of ultraparadoxical brain activity, which finally resulted in the total "transmarginal" collapse and temporary total inhibition of much brain activity.... [39]

It is this collapsed state that aversion therapists like Dr. Joseph Wolpe of Philadelphia's Temple University, or the notorious racist, Dr. H.J. Eysenck of the University of London, seek to replicate in those they call deviants: "alcoholics, drug addicts, homosexuals, fetishists, criminals, et al." This is how Pavlov's experimental findings are clinically carried out:

If the "deviant" is an alcoholic:

Case Number One: The subject is placed on a stretcher and connected to a respirator and a polygraph.... A 20 mg. dose of Scoline is gradually injected. As soon as there is evidence of respiratory failure, the physician holds the bottle of alcohol to the lips of the subject and deposits a few drops into his mouth.... [40]

Case Number Two: The subject is given either emetime, apomorphine, or Prolexin. As a strong wave of nausea developed, and before actual vomiting began, the patient was given 1.5 ounces of whisky and told to swallow it directly or briefly smell of it first and then swallow it. [41]

And for homosexuals:

Case Number Three: A mental patient convicted on a sexual offense is shown movies of explicit sexual content. If he begins to display evidence of sexual arousal, his genital is shocked. (This program is entitled "Errorless Extindion of Penile Responses" at the California State Hospital for the Criminally Insane. - C.M.) [42]

Case Number Four: M. Raymound (therapist - C.M.) treated a 33-year-old man who was given treatment on probation after having been confided of causing damage to a perambulator. (He was sexually attracted by prams and handbags.) He received an injection of apomorphine and just before nausea was shown handbags and prams.... The treatment was given every two hours, day and night, no food was allowed, and at night amphetamine was used to keep him awake (for one week). [43]

Aversion or punishment therapy is quoted by many behaviorists as being "one of the fastest, most effective techniques available for helping people to rid themselves of troublesome behaviors." [44] To show "proof" of this,


aversionists go so far as to shock even a seven-year-old retarded child every time he put his hand in his mouth, as well as a set of five-year-old schizophrenic twins to extirpate their "self-stimulation and tantrums." [45] Donald M. Baer, a professor of human development and psychology at the University of Kansas, explains: "Punishment works. The technique is simple, and so is the technology. Anyone with a hand to swing is equipped with a punishing device. Mail-order catalogs list a number of inexpensive and reliable cattle prods that deliver punishing but undamaging electric shocks." [46]

Does the "treatment" work? It works in the same way as having a gun held to your head would cause you to modify your behavior. But aversion therapy in the form described can only produce psychosis. How then can such "Pavlovian" methods lead to a programmed state?

The aversionist examples given thus far are really only the first step in the three stages which OSS operative Kurt Lewin outlined as follows: "unfreezing (disturbing a person's equilibrium and making it unstable), changing (providing models for direction of change), and refreezing (reintegrating the new equilibrium into the personality)." [47] In cases of Chinese "brainwashing" of prisoners of war in North Korea, for example, the basic "aversive stimuli" were extreme physiological deprivation, stresses - i.e. isolation, solitary confinement, sleep deprivation, pain, and semi-starvation. But it was not these factors by themselves which resulted in "conversion;" rather, it was their ability to enhance neurosis, which in turn increased suggestibility. It is at this point that a "changing agent" is introduced and "refrozen" or "programmed" into a pseudo-identity or a persona.

This sketchy outline of the brainwashing process, and the role of the aversive stimulus be it physiological or psychological - can be best understood within the context of the material to be presented in the next section.

3. The "Attack Therapies"

The so-called "humantstic therapies - sensitivity training sessions, transactional analysis, Primal Therapy, etc. - are at the very core of coercive psychology. It is such anti-Freudian introspective psychologies that have provided the brainwasher with the "psychodynamic insights" of neurosis, and the know-how to further pervert this neurosis into a controlling - even programming - force. These so-called "humanists" are the real experts in exploiting and in channeling the sickness of bourgeois ideology.

The anti-behaviorists - mainly Freudians and Gestaltists - who were a dominant force through the early 1930's trickled down to a mere handful by the


1940's. Some defected to the overt enemy's camp, behaviorism; some sunk into eclecticism; and a large number lit on any "humanistic" fad or gimmick that appeared. The latter crew, epitomized by R.D. Laing, have now become even more "Pavlovian" than Pavlov. Laing, who comes straight out of the Tavistock Clinic, views the state of madness as a positive act of liberation.

His Kingsley Hall, a supposed therapeutic community in London, is an actual "house of madness." One Kingsley Hall resident, Mary Barnes, regressed to the point of completely smearing herself and her physical surroundings with her own feces. The therapy involved? The therapist sits back and, like the friendly aide to someone on LSD, guides the patient's "journey to madness."

The central thrust of Laing and his cohorts is to worm in on the infantile ego by taking the protective persona and chipping or in some cases axing it away. Without a revolutionary alternative, i.e. a self-conscious identity, the persona-stripped individual has two choices: either return to the infantile ego state, developing an even more armoured persona or a pseudo-identity persona, or commit suicide.

We will examine more closely a few of these persona-stripping approaches: Primal Therapy and transactional group analysis.

Primal therapy: Primal therapy is so hideous that many of its patients have dropped out, charging that it was "intolerable emotional brainwashing that depends for its success upon absolute submission to a ... faith healer." [48] The Primal patient is literally encouraged to regress to the state of infancy: to writhe on the floor to the point of convulsion, crying out, "Mommy! Daddy!" The patient then lets out a piercing, deathlike scream. This, Arthur Janov, Primal Therapy's originator, calls the "Primal Scream."

Janov, a psychologist and psychiatric social worker, has picked up narrow aspects or Freudian psychology and transformed them into a murderous sham. Janov has taken neurosis - internalized ideology, whose elimination Freud correctly recognized can only occur through self-awareness - and defined it as "a disease of feeling" in which self-awareness plays no role. [49]

Janov is practicing voodoo. The frenzied state into which he works his patients is merely the intensification of neurosis - the point at which all lifelong demons of an individual, i.e. all the crap, illusions, fear and despair of the bourgeois persona, actually seize control of the body, resulting in psychosis.

Papa Doc Duvalier, aided by Kline, came to power primarily through exploiting a similar hysteria, the frenzied state of voodoo. Janov's post-primal victims


exactly resemble zombies:

They are not moody and do not oscillate between extremes of feeling. All peaks have been ironed out. And there is no struggle. Hence, Primal people have no need or desire to organize or join groups. They are highly individualistic. If the world had been through Primal Therapy there would be no politics (which is only a sick quest for power). Each person would be content to tend his own emotional garden. [50]

The similarities between Primal Therapy and Chinese-style brainwashing are striking. The "patient-trainee" begins by writing a personal history. On the day the "therapy" is to begin, the patient is instructed to check into a hotel and spend the day before his initial session in complete isolation, without books, television or, sometimes, food or sleep.

A journalist visiting Janov's Primal Institute in Los Angeles describes the almost comic pathology of Primal Therapy:

All kinds of semi-theatrical props are used to help trigger Primal scenes. The primal Institute is well stocked with teddy bears, baby bottles, cribs and other devices. Punching bags and isolation chambers and life-size photographs of patients' parents are all part of the armamentarium of the therapy. Sometimes patients return to their childhood homes. A birth simulator, made of tied-together inner tubes, stands ready to expel a patient who needs to relive the trauma of birth from its rubber womb. Periodically the Institute has Primal night at the movies. Films like "The Yearling" or "La Strada" evoke such strong feelings that it is not unusual for every member of the audience to have a Primal while the film is running. And sometimes patients and staff join in costume parties at which all may act out fantasies. [51]

Excerpts from Janov's clinical practice vividly demonstrate how Primal Therapy sets the stage for the mind's unconscious demons to completely imprison the self. A patient called Phillip, who is diagnosed as a psychopath, is a college-educated male with a history of delinquency and sexual perversions:

Janov: "What would you say to your mother, if you could talk to her right now, your real mother?" Phillip: "My real mother?" Janov: "What would you say?" Phillip: "I would ask her to love me."

Janov: "All right; ask her. Talk to her. Mommy - come on; say what you want to say." Phillip (desctibing his thoughts): "I began to breathe heavy and felt the lump stuck in my throat. I pulled hard. I felt like I was being pulled apart, like I was split down the middle, and the two halves were pulling against each other. I was being pulled apart physically and every way. I tried to fight it. The two parts of me were locked. I couldn't stop it. I opened and screamed, "Mommy, Mommy!" Janov: "Call." Phillip: "I want her to come back." I began to cry hard. It hurt. I choked and I gagged on my feelings. I


screamed, "I want to die".... Philip: "I hate --- leave me alone. Mommy. I hate you all, you fuckers." I choked and gagged, trying to keep my feelings down to control them. They kept coming up anyway. My body hurt. The lump in my throat wouldn't go away. I opened up and screamed out, "Love me." I shut off.... I was afraid I wasn't loved and that I wasn't capable of living. I felt worthless. My mother had left me, and I asked, "Why me?" I didn't know if she wanted me, and I resented her. l wanted to kill - to kill me. I felt unlike other people. I screamed out. I screamed some more, but I kept blocking. I was afraid to let go. Afraid I'd flail around, out of control. Afraid if I let go I'd want to hit. I hit the couch and screamed; out came "I hate me.... Janov said, "Tell them; tell Mommy and Daddy. You've got to tell them you're suffering." I could only choke, gag, and hold on. The pain was too great. Janov: "Don't be silent anymore. Get it out; call for help. "Daddy, Mommy." I screamed out the pain and screamed it out again. Then there was quiet....

This was my Primal Scene and the first connection I made.... My body felt the split, the pulling apart.... I had three lumps now. One in my throat, one in my diaphragm, and one in my lower chest. I screamed, "Mommy, Mommy," and I could see her hand reach down and pull my balls out and up through me.... My cock went up and down in my throat as I breathed and it was masturbating. The phlegm became semen in my mouth, and I gagged. I screamed out, still distorting and disguising the word "cock" that I was so afraid of. "Cock, cock, cock." What did it mean? Maybe I was homosexual. I panicked....

On the way to Janov's, I had my throat choke up, and I wanted to cry. I felt I was a little boy going to my room where it was all right to be a little boy, I lay on the couch, and the feeling came up. I peed, and "Daddy" came out. I began to cry, and call, and call, "Daddy, Daddy, love me!".... I sank into my feelings, and a picture flashed before my eyes. I was standing in the middle of a circle of people, who were staring at me, with my middle finger giving the "fuck you" sign to them all, and laughing. All of a sudden the picture changed, and I was stripped naked, and the faces were staring at me. Mocking faces, leering, ugly. The ugly reflection of me. I became scared, and all alone, trying to cover myself with my hands. I couldn't see who the faces were. Janov said "See it, stay with it." I looked close. My head wanted to turn I looked hard and screamed in anguish. It was my family....

During the time in between Primal phases, my body seemed to resort to check out the newly formed features, and to prepare for the next phase. I became aware that my body was taking over as my brain was losing its control over my body. l was sitting in group, and thy sensation that had been with me for several sessions was present.... I lay down in the group, thinking I would be done in a few minutes, when I felt afraid and could feel my body wanting to flail and twist free. I yelled, "I'm afraid." Janov said, "Let it happen." My body began to move in various uncanny positions that defied any control on my part and brought screams of pain as the


untwisting of both physical and emotional neurotic defenses occurred. Sweat poured over me, as I was overcome by the power of my body, and my brain was powerless to dictate how it thought I should be. I knew then that my brain dilated what my parents wanted me to think and to be, but my body rebelled, and would no longer "act" or "perform" according to any dictates other than what was correct for it. For the first time in my life I was free and knew what freedom was.... [52]

Phillip has gone from being a sick "psychopath" to an even sicker psychotic. At the very point that a competent therapist would have helped Phillip to self-consciously understand his demons, Janov forced him to retreat entirely into his demons. Phillip's "body" (demons) was forced to take over his "brain" (potential consciousness).

The Attack Group: Group dynamics has become big business. Labeled as the encounter group, the t-group, sensitivity training, the leaderless group, the attack group, psychodrama, etc., this trendy phenomenon has become an important tool of capitalist counterinsurgency.

Encounter-style groups are used for everything from training management as Krupp-style slave-drivers to turning potential revolutionaries into fascist stormtroopers. Thousands of workers have been forced into t-grouping "co-participation sessions" aimed at completely routing the trade-union movement. Key ghetto leaders, including most Welfare Rights Organization leaders, were turned into Kapos through Alinski-style sensitivity sessions. In fact, the Human Potential Movement, which led to the establishment of encounter-group-oriented centers in most major cities throughout the U.S., plays a major role in the mid- and late-1960's by funneling the New Left into anarchistic "life-style" forms.

Encounter-style group dynamics has little in common with legitimate group therapy. Group therapy, if led by a competent therapist, is an important clinical technique in which the supportive group interaction itself provides a socialized setting for eliciting self-consciousness amongst participants. Encounter-style group situations start from the opposite premise. The power of the group dynamic is wielded, as in the Primal Therapy, to destructively attack the participants. Anyone ever participating in a t-group must know all too well the induced feelings of impotence and despair.

Such techniques can only annihilate the personality. They play upon the vulnerable person's guilt, shame and regret with both sledge hammer and scalpel. Reminiscent of the Communist Chinese "truth session" used in the prison camps of North Korea, attack-group therapy, particularly when it occurs in marathon groups (one of its commonest forms), creates a state of extreme


exhaustion, thus heightening suggestibility. In fact, the Federal Prisoners Coalition, a group of radical prisoners, explicitly likens the process to brainwashing.

The Coalition has particularly cited the personality annihilation going on under the direction of Dr. Martin Groder at the maximum security federal penitentiary at Marion, Illinois. In this "voluntary" program Groder employs an eclectic form of "group dynamics" -- mainly transactional analysis and the Synanon attack approach.

The Federal Prisoners Coalition points out just how "voluntary" this program really is:

The method of securing prisoner participation in the group has varied from a hard form of coercive persuasion during that four-year period of time (since its inception in 1968 - C.M.). For some men, serving lengthy sentences with no hope of ever getting out and who had simply been warehoused for years, it was only necessary to indicate that participation could lead to an early release to secure volunteers. For others, aggressively coercive means were used. Some examples will be given:

H. Adams was given an isolation experience characterized by the Associate Warden of Treatment threatening him with drug-assault chemical straight-jacketing, and the staff psychiatrist telling him that the only way he could secure his release was by joining his group of prisoners....

Ben Daughtery was lodged in segregation.... He was coerced into taking a chance of the group. On finding that it kept him confused and continually upset over a period of some weeks; he notified the staff psychiatrist of his intention to quit. Before he could do so, by coincidence of some sort, he found himself back in isolation on a minor disciplinary infraction....

Case managers would consistently tell people approaching a parole hearing date that since they had no record of participation in the experimental group, it was going to be hard to make a favorable impression on the parole board.... [53]

Once the prisoner is bribed or dragged into the program, this is what happens:

First he is told to come to evening encounters with prisoners who are already off into the program. At these encounters he is indoctrinated in the rudiments of the attack-sessions, transitional analysis, and the model prisoner attitudes as personified by prisoners who are more advanced in their thought reform.

At the end of these first encounters, he is given basic literature formulated by the prisoners under the direction of its (the group's - C.M.) founder. He is told to study these materials, and a beginning is made at structuring his thought processes to their content.

After thirty days of these encounters, if it is felt by the staff and prisoner group that he is a vulnerable subject,


he is moved into a new living situation, where he will be surrounded by members of the group at all times and where the environment in this area of the prison is programmed to reinforce desired attitudes and behavior.

In these new living conditions group pressures are intensified. His emotional behavior and psychic characteristics are studied by the staff and semi-professional prisoners to detect vulnerable points of entry to stage attack-sessions around. During these sessions, on a progressively intensified basis, he is shouted at, his fears played upon, his sensitivities ridiculed, and concentrated effort is made to make him feel guilty for real or imagined characteristics of conduct. He is introduced to bouts of sleeplessness and contact sessions. Every effort is made to so heighten his suggestibility and weaken his character structure so that his emotional responses and thought-flow will be brought under group and staff control as totally as possible.

... Everything of possible significance that he says, does or shows that he feels is reported back to staff officials on the program; who in turn use this material to devise and suggest specific measures geared to his personal susceptibilities for more advanced prisoners to use on him in subsequent sessions....

... At this stage, it is common for a confusional state to have been induced in the individual that is so pronounced and overwhelmingly reinforced by his environment that be can literally no longer distinguish the difference between his own beliefs and convictions and those being thrust upon him. His emotional state at this time appears to be (and is intended to be) one of stressful uncertainty and disorientation....

To prove to the individual that this new state of being is a "winning" one, the reborn individual is given a variety of positive reinforcements from his environment at this point. These can take the form of allowing him to move into the somewhat plush quarters reserved for the elite among this group. Here a dozen men have to themselves the same amount of living space that sixty-four (64) persons in the lower-class populace inhabit. This living area allows him to have (or have access to) stereo-sound equipment, tape recorders, a typewriter, a personal library, access to any publication from the free world, access to community persons in the forms of being allowed to have a local woman or other friends on his visiting list.

He is now told that he can receive advanced training to prepare him to go forth and teach and train the World's masses. He is told that with proper preparation he will be validated as an instructor of the International Transactional Analysis Association and that this will enable him to earn many thousands of dollars a year doing unto others as has been done unto him.

During this final phase of his training he is polished by the founder of the Group, of one of his free-world disciples, and indoctrinated in the Final ends of this program. He is sounded out if he is seen to have the potential, to determine if he might be deeply enough enjoined to the Cause to want to go into the wilderness of


other prisons in the federal system and begin introducing other prisoners and prison staff members to the basics of establishing such a program in their facility. He is told that his release will be pushed for and some help given him in finding a position in society doing these familiar things to others of the social order's disadvantaged people and the Group's founder and supporters in government. He now gets to indoctrinate and subject newcomers into the Mysteries of the Group and is held up as a Model Image to them; and like a good attack-dog he is graded and evaluated on his demonstrated capacity and willingness to go for the vulnerable points of any victim placed before him.... [54]

This is not the product of paranoid prisoners with an ax to grind. This entire process is spelled out, only in jargon terms, in a paper written by Dr. Groder, the program's director, entitled "Asklepieion - An Effective Treatment Method for Incarcerated Character Disorders." There Groder demonstrates his basic grasp of the principles of psychological warfare which he unleashes upon the Marion prisoners. He writes: "... careful watch must be made of not too repetitiously using the same set of methods, as there is an inherent tendency for any method to be subverted as soon as it is clear how it works." (emphasis added) [55] With this insight in mind, Groder has developed a mix of chemotherapy, attack therapy, transactional analysis, Primal Therapy and any other approach which might pragmatically work.

Like any "successful" program, Asklepieion will soon move out of its pilot project stage. Scheduled to open shortly near Butner, North Carolina, is a new federal institution, the Federal Center for Correction Research, built at a cost of $13.5 million. A handout from the Bureau of Prisons says it will be a "unique facility in the federal correctional system." Its director is Dr. Martin Groder.

The Butner program is divided into two component parts: a "therapeutic" program and a "research" program. Transactional analysis and attack-group therapy methods will be central to the program. Groder has publicly stated that aversion therapy will be used (he qualifies it by claiming that only "minor things with aversive conditioning" will be attempted). He does not deny the use of electroshock. He has also stated that "vocational" training, based on the military model, will be central to the treatment and will "complement the group therapy." Program participants will be selected via computer printout.



But there are a few hitches to Rockefeller's 1984 plans. In the end, the psychotic rage induced by behavior


modification will backfire against the behavior modifier. Man's suppressed humanity will creep through. On November 30, 1969, the Asklepieion program at Marion was temporarily terminated. Why? One of the participants, a homosexual, "worked himself up into a murderous rage which culminated in the fatal stabbing of a program member in the dining room." [56] It is up to the socialist movement to direct this "rage" - which is no more than human consciousness crying to be released from its tormenting hell - against the real villains, the Rockefellers, Mellons and their CIA employees who attempted to destroy him. In this way the walls of self-imprisonment will be broken down: the neurotic ego- state upon which behavior modification/brainwashing is based will be superseded by the socialist identity of self-consciousness.



Psychological warfare techniques aimed at non-ruling class layers of the population are about as old as humanity itself. Punishment and torture, today called aversion therapy, have been used as behavioral deterrents or shapers by barbarian chieftain and feudal lords alike to preserve and consolidate their power.

Even thousands of years ago, it was not the techniques per se, but their conscious application as divide-and-conquer tools which aided the ruling classes. No matter how anti-human a particular technique or "therapeutic" approach may be - even psychosurgery or ECT - it is not in itself counterinsurgency. Counterinsurgency cannot proceed merely on horrors; it requires conscious and systematic application by the ruling class, or its dupes. Exactly this was accomplished by the conversion of psychology and psychiatry in the 1930's. Mechanistic psychology - human consciousness relegated to elementary "particles" or "existences" - when elevated to a replicable system was finally fit to serve as a key part of a counterinsurgency apparatus.

This first massive application of psychology as a conscious weapon took place, not surprisingly, in Nazi Germany.* In particular, recall the theory of eugenics - which played upon the most backward "Aryan"


* The depression era gave birth to the vast bulk of coercive psychological techniques . Almost all these techniques were. developed or refined in overtly fascist or near-fascist countries. For example, psychosurgery was picked up and begun to be applied massively by a butcher names Egas Moniz in Portugal in 1936. ECT was refined for general application by Ugo Carletti in 1938 in Rome; Group Dynamics, particularly in the form of the "leaderless group," was employed by the Nazis to select the most able slave laborers.



illusions held by and imposed on portions of the masses. While the cause and development of Nazi butchery stemmed wholly from the world economic collapse and resulting despair (especially aggravated by the degeneracy and impotence of the Communist Parties), its specific form, eugenics, was devised by the Nazi's favorite theoreticians and technicians - the psychiatrists.

Two individuals In particular stand out.

First Ernest Rudin, architect of the eugenics law. a wartime director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and a psychiatrist, actively sponsored "biological psychiatry." Secondly, as early as 1920 an "outstanding" German psychiatrist, Alfred Hoche, no-authored a book called The Destruction of Life Devoid of Value. Hoche firmly outlined genetic theories of so-called mental illness, and advocated "mercy killing" as a solution both to the, public health problem and the suffering of the individual.

It was German psychiatrists, the original Nazi doctors, who designed the crematoria.

The exploitation of the psychological sciences by the Nazis merely adumbrated a far fiercer effort to abort the present revolutionary potential of the working class worldwide. The work that was begun by fascism in the 1930's was adopted and advanced in previously unforeseen ways, particularly by the bourgeoisie in England and the U.S. The person who above all others "deserves" credit for the shaping of Rockefeller-1984 psychological warfare is a Britisher - the above-mentioned Dr. John Rawlings Rees.

Rees, through British Intelligence, had a primary duty during World War II: to train U.S. military and civilian


intelligence in psychological warfare. Why a Britisher? Until World War I, Great Britain remained the top imperialist force. Its intelligence network, dating back to the 16th century, had developed into the world's best secret service operation. The U.S.'s Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a kindergarten joke compared with Britain's MI5. Britain had the sophistication and expertise, lingering from its "heyday," to develop the necessary type of intelligence system demanded by the U.S., the leading political and economic power. For his efforts, Rees in 1946 received the U.S. Lasker Award from General Omar Bradley.

Rees taught no black magic. He schooled the CIA's precursors in "psychoanalytically oriented" brainwashing and counterinsurgency - i.e. the use of the psychological profile. He presented models of slave-labor programs based on his Nazi theories of the "constitutional inferiority of one-tenth of the community" (including "colored men" and "those prone to contracting venereal disease"). [58] He conveyed ways to establish front organizations, such as his Rockefeller-funded Tavistock Institute and the World Federation for Mental Health, to provide a fleshy rump for major death-heads counterinsurgency operations.

Rees did to psychology and psychiatry in the 1940's exactly what the CIA is now doing to Brazil: cleaned and polished it up for the real debacle - the looting of humanity smoothly to its death. It is this process that Rees references when he states that "the solution [to the subversive rebellion] is more likely to lie along the lines of social psychiatry than of official suppression." [59]

The bulk of Rees's fascist plan is printed in his book, particularly its last chapters, "The Shaping of Psychiatry by War," which is a compilation of lectures presented to


U.S. Army psychiatrists in 1945. Here Rees explains the role of his psychiatric Gestapo:

... They are not merely dealing with outpatient work amongst those who fall sick, but they are concerned with the minor indications of instability that link up with disciplinary troubles, with social unrest and with poor morale. Through their emphasis on, and interest in, conditions of work, they can advise on the modification of working hours and conditions, on welfare arid the use of leisure, on training and allocation and on all the manifold group problems that are there to be seen by anyone who is in the group but yet has learned to be attacked. [60]

It is upon such principles that the major "mental health" institutions in the U.S. were created, notably the Veterans Administration, the "private" social welfare agencies, and especially the National Institute of Mental Hea1th (NIMH).

The Mental Health Act of 1946 was, in the NIMH's own words, "a major turning point in the entire development of the field of mental health." [61] This Act authorized broad support for research, training, support of service, the establishment of clinics and treatment centers, pilot and demonstration studies, and direct assistance to the States. Its form, however, is less important than its content. What the NIMH, more than any other institution, did in its formative years was to shape mental health research and practice along Reesian lines.

But Rees influenced more than institutions; he primarily influenced those individuals who developed the institutions. One such Rees creation is Imamu Baraka*; another is Kurt Lewin.

Kurt Lewin, the "father" of group dynamics, was one of Rees's first cadre recruits. Lewin, a psychologist, was a "political" refugee from Nazi Germany who, like so many other German "intellects," was forced out of


Germany not because of any basic political differences but as a sacrifice to Hitler's divide-and-conquer anti-Semitism. Lewin, in fact, is noted for his refinement of the Nazi-formulated "leaderless group" technique into a sophisticated tool of counterinsurgency.

In the early 1930's Lewin first developed contact not with Rees, but with one of his Tavistock colleagues, Eric Trist. (Trist today steers the ClA-directed LEAA, NIMH-NIH, Ford Foundation and World Bank-funded brainwashing network at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.) More than a decade later, Trist, along with A.T.M. Wilson, prepared a proposal to the Rockefeller Foundation which led to the establishment of the Tavistock Institute in London. Rees was its first director. Immediately upon establishment of Tavistock, Trist contacted Lewin, who had already formed the North American precursor to the CIA-controlled Institute for Social Research (ISR), the Research Center for Group Dynamics at M.I.T. The Reesites at Tavistock wanted Lewin to jointly establish an international journal described as "working towards the integration of the social sciences." Lewin eagerly agreed, and thus sprang forth one of the primarily CIA-backed journals, Human Relations.


* In 1968 Rees, posing as the director of a nonexistent company, New Goals, Inc., set up the meetings between LeRoi Jones and Anthony Imperiale that launched the CIA’s "Operation Newark." See New Solidarity, August 31,. 1973, Vol . IV, No. 20 for further details.



Lewin was no group dynamics expert. That tag, and his quasi-Gestalt field theories, composed a professional image apart from his real expertise - co-participation, social management, community action and brainwashing.

Lewin began his American career in 1933 at Cornell University, where he worked on a systematic series of studies of the "effect of social pressure on the eating habits of children in the Cornell Nursery School" [62], a project that was later put to "better use." A few years later at the University of Iowa, Lewin, through a grant from the Rockefeller Funds General Education Board, launched his career as an official counterinsurgent in what he called "the psychological study of social issues."

As Lewin explained, every individual has a base for his life - a "life-space" - and one of its most important components is the group to which he belongs. Each individual knows, at each stage, to which group he belongs at that moment and to which he does not. This knowledge of his proper place and allegiance determines his behavior. [63]

This group allegiance idea is the kingpin of just about all counterinsurgency - be it co-participation and community control or brainwashing. Lewin, no doubt with help from Tavistock friends, was the primary theoretician behind most of the present-day schemes which plague the ghetto and the working class.

Lewin took his group allegiance theory and first put it to practical work in 1939. His first targets were workers in industry; in fact a specific industry in a rural community in Virginia, the Harwood Manufacturing Corporation, became the experimental grounds for


"scientifically induced" speedup and slave labor. The author of Lewin's biography, Alfred J. Marrow, was also a German emigrant, a student of Lewin's, an expert in co-participation, and at the time of the Harwood experiment, an officer of that company. Marrow describes the plant's setting:

The factory management faced many critical problems in trying to train three hundred inexperienced apprentices - people from the Virginia mountains - to meet the high standards of the production of the industrialized areas of the North. Their trainees - mainly women with no factory experience - were eager to work, but on the job their work pace was slow and their output was low. After the customary twelve weeks of training required for reaching the skill level of an experienced worker, the local trainees produced only about half as much as apprentices doing similar tasks in northern plants. [64]

Lewin got to work and within a few days the workers' productivity was increased substantially. How? Through education, increased wages allowing increased consumption, or modern technology? No. Lewin's mode was co-participation - what he called "group decision-making" and "self-management."

This link is provided by decisions. A process like decision-making, which takes only a few minutes, is able to affect conduct for many months to come. The decision seems to have a "freezing" effect which is partly due to the individual's tendency to "stick to his decision" and partly to the "commitment to a group." [65]

Lewin had "convinced" the Harwood management to plan and put into effect a series of small-group studies on "the human factor" in factory management. Alex Bavelas, than at the University of Iowa, was hired to implement this task under Lewin's supervision.

Bavelas used small informal group meetings of high-producing operators to begin his speedup campaign. Everyone was encouraged to discuss the difficulties he or she would encounter if the group wanted to increase its daily production.

The group then asked to vote on the issue of increasing its own daily output. Each worker would decide for himself or herself, but decide in the reinforcing context of the group setting. For example, the group decided to lift output from the prevailing high ceiling of 75 units to 87 units, a level never before attained. It decided to reach the goal within five days - and did so. Later, the group raised its goal to 90 units, reached it, and later maintained it for five months, during which time other groups in the plant showed no significant increase.

Lewin, extremely excited by the effectiveness of his speedup tactics, began planning a new program of leadership training in which all levels of supervisory management would participate. Role-playing,


sociodrama, problem-solving, and other action, techniques would be emphasized. The point, of course, was to train management to replicate the Harwood success: to give them sophisticated "social psychiatric" tools, as Rees would put it, to "win cooperation, build trust, improve morale," or, in other words, to bust unions and crack the whip with a smile.

Lewin's leadership training idea came to fruition in 1947, shortly after his death, at the first session of the National Training Laboratories in Bethel, Maine. Since then his leadership training methods have become an integral part of capitalist policy in turning significant layers of the student, trade-union, prison and community-activist population into slave-driving kapos.

Not only was Lewin one of the primary international pushers of the no-participation schemes we currently see inflicted on workers in every union from the U.A.W. to the U.F.T., he was the blueprinted of the Office of Economic Opportunity's community action plan twenty years prior to its implementation. Lewin's Commission on Community Interrelations (CCl), under the auspices of the American Jewish Congress, used the idea of "maximum feasible participation" to involve community activists in divide-and-conquer actions under the guise of improving intergroup (primarily race) relations.

Projects included the modification of gang behavior (channeling their energies into such constructive actions as "wanting to please adults"); integrating sales personnel (a prototype of the Affirmative Action plan) and housing (without talking about expansion); "studying" group loyalty; and developing sensitivity training for community activists around attitudinal change.

It is in the underlying philosophy of the CCI where psychologist Lewin shows his best poverty-pimp form: "To reverse self-segregation a minority should demand substantial sacrifice from its members. Sacrifice gives each member a greater stake in the group; he will not falter in a cause which he has given so much of himself." (emphasis added)

Who is this scum, Kurt Lewin? Lewin was no naive academic; nor was he a dupe. Lewin spent the war years travelling frequently from Iowa City to Washington to advise the O.S.S. on psychological warfare programs. According to Marrow, "some of the information concerning these activities is still classified." [66] Ronald Lippit, another counterinsurgency student of Lewin, commenting on the secrecy of Lewin's work added:

But it is known that he made very creative contributions to the working out of the proper relations between psychological warfare, target-setting, field operations, and evaluative reconnaissance.

In order for Lewin to "legally" obtain top security


clearance, the OSS hurriedly ushered through his citizenship in 1940. His first overt assignment was to utilize "group decision-making" in changing food preferences away from "meat" towards "whole-wheat bread" or "turnips" as substitutes.

Lewin was invited to spend the academic year 1947-48 at Tavistock. He never made it because of his death in February 1947. But, as Marrow indicates, Lewin's influence on Tavistock has continued through the years. His field theories were used to shape the research design of the "Glacier Project," a "pioneering study of group relations in the newly nationalized British coal industry."

The protégés of Rees and Lewin are the Nazi Doctors of this the Second Great Depression. They are the vicious individuals like Dr. Nathan Kline or Dr. Jose Delgado; they are the many "professionals" singled out in this article and the many more that remain unmentioned. Today they are the storm troopers of Rockefeller's fascism.

Make no mistake. We are not implying that every psychologist, psychiatrist or related professional is a paid or even unpaid agent of the CIA. What we find is a concentric circles process. At the center, we find the conscious agents - individuals like Kline or Eric Trist. Around them are their dupes who are voluntarily or involuntarily in training for the inner-circle spot. Then there is a large circle of unconscious dupes, usually the clinicians who naively but willingly implement the tasks dictated by the Rockefeller and other "funders" of their work. Finally, there is the largest circle of individuals, students, clinicians et al., who get caught in "behaviorism" or "biological psychiatry" because there is nothing else being financially supported.

We insist, however, that any person committing, collaborating or giving any justification whatsoever to coercive psychology is guilty of Crimes Against Humanity as outlined in the Nuremburg Principles. There is no neutrality on this issue; neutrality is guilt under the Nuremburg Principles.

What we find in this process is bourgeois ideology at work. The molding of Rockefeller's psychiatric Gestapo is basically an ideological process beginning at birth and culminating in professional training. All through life people are told they are nothing more than a piece of shit. It begins in early childhood when parents begin to judge a child's "worth" by his or her ability to perform, to meet the parents' expectations and to placate the parents neuroses. A few years later in primary school (or maybe earlier in nursery school or day school) the child's budding humanity is further degraded and suppressed by the conformist needs of the teacher and eventually the


peer group. A child's creativity, i.e. humanity, begins to wither amidst the drudgery of such bourgeois institutions. If a child has miraculously escaped (or nearly escaped), this process then the viciousness of adolescence will intervene. No adolescent comes through this period without some deep-rooted battle scars.

By the time a student approaches higher education, he or she is fully conditioned to accept - even expel - the most bestialized and anti-human ideas. They reflect his or her reality under capitalism. An animal psychology class is taken - no questions asked; the mind is turned into a computer - no questions asked. This is the real world to them and it is ugly but no uglier than the "human" beings who, in their estimation, destroyed them.

Students drawn towards the "helping professions" - e.g. medicine, psychology, social work, education, etc. - come with such an internalized ideology, although often more clouded. The point is, however, that even for those who sincerely want to find a human identity under capitalist terms there is no alternative being funded.

For example, students who major in psychology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook must pay the price of being brainwashed in order to get their degree. Stony Brook is one of Rockefeller's primary training grounds. Within its nine years of existence, it has "transformed" itself into being one of the nation's most prestigious rats' nests. Students "educated" there are forced to take courses like "Laboratory in Physiological Psychology," "Studies of Social Conflict," "Animal Learning," "Organizational Psychology [work morale, motivation, etc.]," "Behavioral Tutoring," "Behavior Modification," "Electrical and Chemical Brain Stimulation," etc. Students are also encouraged to take courses in "computer science." [68]

Medical schools do an even more thorough job in transforming the already impotent students into further impotence. Sadistic experiments and operations, such as the use of psychosurgery, E.C.T., and mind-blunting drugs, actually become an outlet for the doctor's impotence.

Take the average four-year medical school curriculum. Students are under the most grinding pressures during this period. Their basic task is to memorize, so as to regurgitate, a large number of anatomical and physiological "facts." Never are they encouraged to think; never are they presented with an integrated understanding of the human body and its relationship to the human mind. They are forced to view medicine in the most atomized and mechanistic manner.


All the time they are told that if you don't succumb to this "medical model" someone might die because of your negligence.

At the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, for example, the students' curriculum is divided into two segments: the basic sciences and the clinical specialties. Basic sciences include anatomy, biochemistry, genetics, medicine, pharmacology, etc.; clinical specialties include anesthesiology, dermatology, medicine, neurology, pediatrics, psychiatry, surgery, etc. There is little, if any, integration between the theory and the practice. Third- and fourth-year students are thrown into actual life-or-death clinical situations with only those atomized facts to back them up. This feeling of helplessness, coupled with long and grueling hours, intensifies at the intern stage. Like the horrific German medical examination, the U.S. medical program begins to eat away at the individual's humanity; by the time the M.D. degree is awarded, there is often little creative potential left.

The aspiring psychiatrist stands at an even greater disadvantage. Forced to go through four years of medical training where the concept of the human mind is almost completely negated, where studies of the central nervous system or the mapping of the brain's regions substitute for human psychology, the student is nearly destroyed before he or she even reaches the psychiatric residency some five years after beginning medical studies. Furthermore, the psychiatric residency teaches the student a garbled mish-mash called "classical psychiatry." Somatic methods of treatment - drugs, ECT, even psychosurgery - are the core of the treatment. A few manage to go slightly beyond this. A small number of psychiatrists have regained partial humanity through intensive psychoanalysis - both therapy and formal study. Even here, however, most of Freudian psychology has been so distorted that its proponents must be classified as anti-Freud.

It is for the working class to build institutions that enhance man's humanity rather than to destroy it; but we must first destroy the old. It is exactly this destruction that strikes at the core of the Labor Committees' campaign, Operation Nuremburg. It is by stamping out every dehumanizing theory and casting indictment upon every sadistic practicing or collaborating professional that we will establish the pre-conditions for real socialist transformation. In this way the working class and as many professionals as we can bring along will go "beyond coercive psychology" and even "beyond psychoanalysis."



1. John R. Rees, The Shaping of Psychiatry By War, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1945.

2. Leon Trotsky, The Struggle Against Fascism in Germany, New York: Pathfinder Press, 1971, p. 402.

3. Walter Freeman, Psychosurgery in the Treatment of Mental Disorders and Intractable Pain, Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1950.

4. G .W.F. Hegel, The Phenomenology of Mind, New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1967, pp. 361-362.

5. Peter R. Breggin, M.D., "New Information in the Debate Over Psychosurgery," Congressional Record, March 30, 1972.

6. Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics, New York: The M.I .T.

Press and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1961, p. 148.

7. Jose M.R. Delgado, "E.S.B., " Psychology Today, Vol. 3, No. 12, May 1970, p. 48.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid.

14. David Rorvik, "Behavior Control: Big Brother Comes," Intellectual Digest, January 1974, p. 19.

15. Jose M.R. Delgado, M.D. , Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society, New York: Harper and Row, 1969.

16. Breggin, op. cit., p. 6.

17. Delgado, op. cit., p. 30.

18. "Shock Therapist Trades 'Old' Personality," Detroit Free Press, Feb. 11, 1973, p. 4-A.

19. Ibid.

20. "Medical Ethics and Human Subject," Science News. Vol. 104, July 14, 1973, p. 20.

21. Ibid.

22. Nathan S. Kline, "Manipulation of Life Patterns with Drugs," in Psychotropic Drugs in the Year 2000: Use by Normal Humans, Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1971.

23. Nathan S. Kline, "No One Knew That Such An Approach Was Incorrect. Consequently It Worked," CIBA-GEIGY Journal, No. 4, 1972, p. 20.

24. Ibid.

25. Ibid., p. 27.

26. Ibid., p. 22.

27. Jessica Mitford, "The Torture Cure," Harpers, Vol. 247, August 1973, p. 26.

28. Joe P. Tupin, David B. Smith T.L. Clanon, L.I. Kim, A. Nugent and A. Groupe, The Long-Term Use of Lithium in Aggressive Prisoners," Comprehensive Psychiatry. Vol. 14, No. 4, July/August, 1973.

29. Mitford, op. cit., p. 26.

30. Jane Brody. "Experts Now Link a Learning Disorder to Delinquency, " The New York Times, Feb. 13, 1972, p. 46.

31. Classroom Pushers," Time, Vol. 101, No. 9, Feb. 25, p. 65.

32. Ibid.

33. Ralph Schwitzgebel, Development and Legal Regulations of Coercive Behavior Modification Techniques with Offenders, Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Mental Health, 1971.

34. Ibid.


35. Project START handout, p. 1.

36. Meredith Wellington, Law Brief (Obtained through Arpiar Saunders, National Prison Project, ACLU).

37. Ibid.

38. William Sargant, Battle for the Mind, New York: Harper and Row, 1971, p. 13.

39. Ibid., p. 12.

40. S. Rachman and J. Teasdale, Aversion Therapy and Behavior Disorders: An Analysis, Florida: University of Miami Press, 1969.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid.

43. Bernard Weiner, "Prison Psychiatry: The Clockwork Cure" The Nation, April 3, 1972.

44. Donald M. Baer, "Let's Take Another Look at Punishment," Psychology Today, October 1971, p. 33.

45. Ibid., p. 34-37.

46. Ibid., p. 37.

47. Paul Chondoff, "Effects of Extreme Coercive and Oppressive Forces: Brainwashing and Concentration Camps," in Biological Studies and Artificial Syndromes.

48. Sam Keen, "Janov and Primal Therapy, 'The Screaming Cure'," Psychology Today, February 1972, p. 88.

49. Arthur Janov, The Primal Scream - Primal Therapy: The Cure for Neurosis, New York: Delta, 1970.

50. Keen, op. cit. , p. 88.

51. Ibid. , p. 87.

52. Janov, op. cit. , pp. 255-259.

53. The Federal Prisoners Coalition, Personality Annihilation and Reconstruction in the Federal Bureau of Prisons: A Service of the U. S. Dept. of Justice and Its Bureau of Prisons (mimeographed paper) , August 1972.

54. Ibid.

55. Martin G. Groder, M.D., Asklepion - an Effective Treatment Method for Incarcerated Character Disorders (mimeographed paper) p. 10.

56. Ibid., p. 24.

57. Peter R. Breggin, M.D., "The Killing of Mental Patients," Freedom, No. XIII, June-July, p. 5.

58. Peter Cuskie, "The Real Dr. Rees - CIA's Fascist Planner," New Solidarity, Vol. IV, No. 20, August 31, 1973.

59. Rees, op. cit.

60. Ibid.

61. Richard Hays Williams, Perspectives in the Field of Mental Health, Maryland: National Institute of Mental Health, 1972, p. 13.

62. Alfred P. Marrow, The Practical Theorist - The Life and Works of Kurt Lewin, New York: Basic Books, 1969.

63. Ibid.

64. Ibid.

65. Ibid.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1973- 74 Undergraduate Bulletin, pp. 246-251.

69. College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Columbia University Bulletin -- The Faculty of Medicine.

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